The information provided in this lecture describes individualism as social patterns that involve an individual’s priority for self motivation, self confidence, self oriented, and self competent, self responsibility. Collectivism also involves social patterns, however collectivism involves individuals who are collective, which means these individual prefer to be a part of some type of group. These groups may be internal or external. In conclusion, one has discussed and defined the topics of individualism and collectivism from a cultural perspective. The purpose for information provided in this lecture was to help one to differentiate between the two elements.
When looking as to how people obtain their identities the phenomenological perspective believes that we attach a meaning to reality and that we make sense of our experiences and by doing so we search for ‘the self’ and once we have found this we are able to construct our own meaningful identity. The structuralist perspective places great emphasis on socialisation as the key to social identity being ... ... middle of paper ... ... interaction we receive from these groups allows us to feel a sense of belonging and so through this we are able to identify our identities and a sense of purpose in life. Word count : 1,912. Bibliography Marsh, I. Et al (2000) Sociology: Making sense of society.
Symbolic interactionism distinguishes between the social self by separating it into the ‘I’ (the self that thinks and acts), and the ‘Me’ (The self that is presented to the world) (Ibid:23). Theorists believe that the ‘Me’ is the part of the individual that is shaped by society and managed by the ‘I’, others argue that the ‘I’ is equally influenced by external relationships and influences (Ibid:24). The concept of the “Looking Glass Self” shows how large structures of social feedback can influence individual behaviour (ibid). There are three elements within this concept; the individual visualizing how others see them; thinking about how others judge them; and, finally, the feelings that it gives an individual to influence their behaviour (Ibid). For example if a high school student is constantly getting into trouble at school, teachers, administration, and his peers may use social sanctions such as calling him/her ‘delinquent’ or gossip.
It also may lead to stereotyping, prejudice and ethnocentrism towards the out-group (Lecture). Social-comparison is comparing our group behaviours and opinions with those of other groups in a attempt to establish correct and socially accepted ways of thinking and behaving (Text). The social-comparison component allows for greater value to be placed on the in-group, similarly behaving in the exact opposite to the out-group is comparing. The contrast of a shared self-defining properties are the features that define the group, that define the group and mutual to group members (Lecture). Group members who classify with a group, therefore align their own attitudes and behaviours with individuals of other in-group members (Nickerson).
Beliefs influence whether we view issues as social problems or not. Values are culturally approved beliefs about what is right or wrong, desirable or undesirable, and good or bad. Values play a significant role not only in interpreting a condition as a social problem but also in the development of that condition itself! Norms are guidelines or expectations for behavior defined by society. Norms are split into three different types: folkways, laws, and mores.
Socialization The process of socialization is required for the identification process of individuals and groups from the interactions of individuals and groups within a society. The identification process is a process of individuals constructing self-concept, self-esteem, and self-image through the influence of agents of socialization. Self-concept is an idea of the self constructed from the beliefs one holds about oneself and the responses of others. Self-esteem is the confidence on one’s own worth or abilities known as self respect. Self-image is the idea one has of one’s abilities, appearance, and personality.
George Herbert Mead forwarded the Symbolic interaction theory that comprises of three principles; meaning, language, and thought. The theory asserts that people give particular meanings to objects, events, and actions, and hence behave according to these interpretations (Griffin, Ledbetter & Sparks, 2015, p. 54). Individuals use the different interpretations they accord to others to form social bonds. They decide on who to interact with and who not and how to do so. The Symbolic Interaction theory proposes the concept of “the looking glass self” where people mind what others think of them.
Social identity is how you see yourself, how others see you, and how society as a whole sees you. It is the social groups to which we belong that we find our identity and also become the way others define us. Whether you are in a dominant or subordinate social group, it has a profound impact on your social identity. What is a dominant and subordinate group you may ask? As Beverly Tatum writes it in her article “The Complexity of Identity: ‘Who Am I?’”, a dominant group is a social group that “Holds
The main concept of Verstehen is to look at society through the eyes of the individual to try to interpret things in a similar manner to which they would themselves. Verstehen has various criticisms. It is possible that observation may be influenced by personal bias. Direct observation also requires prior knowledge of the culture being studied. Also, Verstehen assumes that people in society rationally consider their actions, which may not always be the case.
Both symbolic interactionist and functionalist have their respective ways of explaining the cause of deviance. On one hand, symbolic interactionist tried to explain this phenomenon through the basic principle that an individual 's actions are dependent on their situation that varies depending upon one 's culture and surroundings which include the differential association theory, control theory, and labeling theory. On the other hand, in the functionalist perspective, they see that society as one system and is composed of interrelated parts. They argued that deviance is an element of society and fulfils specific functions in society. As shown in the strain theory, the existence of deviance allows for the establishment of cultural goal and institutionalize means that results in the operation of