Social Suffering and Learning

1019 Words5 Pages
Introduction: Problem Statement There is unsettling evidence that too many U.S. students are failing to develop a level of competence in reading comprehension, writing, science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields of study (Graham, & Perin, 2007; Harackiewicz, Rozek, Hulleman & Hyde, 2012). Academic research on education has elucidated the importance of these skills, which are foundational to student’s overall scholastic success, and their future economic potential (Graham, 2006; Hanushek, Peterson & Woessmann, 2012). What’s more, in recent decades the U.S. has experienced stagnation in progress towards closing the academic achievement gap, with many negative implications for minority and low socioeconomic status (L-SES) students (Norman, Ault, Bentz & Meskimen, 2001; Fryer, 2011; McHenry & McInerney, 2013). Research has definitively established an intimate link between poverty and middle/high school student’s educational experiences, including their levels of achievement and college aspirations (Tytler & Osborne, 2012; Barton & Coley, 2010). Consequently, substandard academic achievement is blighting young American students ambitions, future employability, health and hopes (Currie, 2008; Cutler & Lleras-Muney, 2010). Minority and low-socioeconomic status (L-SES) populations have limited economic prospects, housing choices and access to health, nutrition and educational, goods and services (Lee, 2002; Freeman, 2010; Tate, 2008; Reardon, 2011). Due to these constraints, a concentration of poverty, diminished social capital, and intergenerational immobility is propagated in poor U.S. communities (U.S. DEPT. of Commerce, 2007 & 2012; Cutler & Lleras-Muney, 2006; Freeman, 2010). Cyclic underachievement is wasting ... ... middle of paper ... ..., E. (2011). The lean startup: How today's entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses. Random House LLC. p.61-62 Gaist, P. A. (2010). Chapters 1 & 6 in, Igniting the Power of Community. Springer Science+ Business Media, LLC.) Wolk, A., & Kreitz, K. (2008). Business planning for enduring social impact. A Social-Entrepreneurial Approach to Solving Social problems. Cambridge: Root Cause. p.19-20 Ries, E. (2011). The lean startup: How today's entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses. Random House LLC. Ch. 7 Ries, E. (2011). The lean startup: How today's entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses. Random House LLC.p.226-227 Wallace, R. B. (2008). Wallace/Maxcy-Rosenau-Last public health & preventive medicine. McGraw-Hill Medical, Inc. p.22-23
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