Criminal Activity Then and Now Criminal justice is composed of many lateral departments that help us as a society to better understand the process that is started when criminal activity is suspected. We will examine how individuals learn how to commit crime and what motivates them to do so. This paper will discuss the steps that are taken once a crime is determine and how the Criminal Justice System is put into place to help solve and come to some type of resolution for the crime. This paper will further discuss the types of deterrence that are placed into society minds to help curve criminal behavior and activity. After reading this paper the reader should have a better understanding on how the Criminal Justice System works and why it is needed help promote a safe environment for our society.
The Impact of Social Intervention on Individuals When attempting to explain the question of what is crime? Two predominate theories emerge, that of a structural explanation and that of an agency. These theories form one of the fundamental debates in Social Science and each offers its own perspective on how free individuals are to act as they chose with out social intervention. As such in this essay I intend to illustrate the key points of each explanation and in turn highlight key methods of evidence used to support them. Those who would describe crime with the foundation on social structures, focus on the collective influences, which drive individuals to behave or conform in certain manners.
The study of criminology is important because it helps society understand what the crimes are, and how criminals who commit this crimes are punished. Understanding crimes from inside out allows us to avoid breaking the law and being considered criminals. Most criminals have a reason to
This paper describe about different types of control theories and the application of control theory in real world context. Social control theory is based on philosophical principles that individuals automatically would commit crime if they left alone with situation. In other words, we, all are born with criminal characteristics and learn to follow laws as we grow in society. Many sociologist and criminologist have suggested that acceptance of social norms and beliefs are a vital evidence of someone is a reputed member in society or a criminal. Control theories not only use to evaluate delinquent behavior of the juvenile populations, but also adult populations.
Such as self report surveys, official crime reports statistics or victimization data. When those other methodologies were used to produced evidence, the social control theory suffers (Williams &McShane, 2014). Social control theory contained pieces from differential association, social disorganization, and anomie theory which made it more attractive to several other criminologists (Williams &McShane, 2014). In general the social control theories were somewhat methodology bound (Williams &McShane, 2014). The social control theory was probably one of the theories that mostly matched the public conception of why people became criminals and more relatable.
Siegel puts it this way (2011) "Two of the most prominent forms of social learning theory: differential association theory and neutralization theory." (p.173). If crime is learned the techniques to do so are as well. Siegel put it this way (2011) " Social learning can involve the actual techniques to crime (how to hot wire a car or roll a joint), as well as the psychological aspects of criminality (how to deal with the guilt or shame associated with illegal activities)." (p.173).
Social Control Theory The social control theory is used as an explanation for how an individual’s behavior conforms to, that which is generally expected within society. The purpose of this theory is people’s relationships, commitments, values, norms, and beliefs can and will encourage them to not break the law. With the social control theory, there is the underlying view of human nature that includes but is not limited to free will, which then gives offenders the right to choose between right and wrong and puts responsibility of their actions in their hands. When people commit crimes they more than likely share a value of belief that tells them they are doing something that is not acceptable to the general public. Leading us to the point that the social control theory focuses on how the absences of close relationships with conventional others can free individuals from social constraints, thus enabling them to engage in delinquency (Kempf-Leonard, 2012).
If moral codes are integrated into the individuals’ life, and they have a stake in their wider community, they will voluntarily limit their probability to commit deviant acts or crime. The theory seeks to understand the ways in which it is possible to reduce the likelihood of criminality developing in individuals. Finally the labeling theory “labels” the deviant acts or crimes. Socially these gives the crime or act a face which makes the offender recognizable by his other act rather than the content of their character prior to the deviant act. Learning theory has been widely discussed in my forums, being taught to be a deviant is the basis of a criminal at its purest form.
It is important, therefore, for criminologists to create an understanding to members of the society regarding the root cause of crime and what dictates the behaviour of individuals who are considered to be criminals (Tierney 2009). Criminology has often been defined as a field of study where scholars from different disciplines in the society come together to find answers to problems identified in the society. Sociological approaches, however, have influenced theoretical conclusions in criminology. That however has not limited other factors like biological factors as explained by Walsh (2000) and Wright and Boisvert (2009). Psychological theories in criminology have also determined a given level of perception developed by the society states Durrant and Ward (2012).
And psychological theory suggest that behavior of crime is the result of individual’s differences in thinking process. These three theories can help criminality to try find out why people commit crime or what leads people to commit crime. It is important to study criminality theories because that way authorities can have a better understanding of