Group members who classify with a group, therefore align their own attitudes and behaviours with individuals of other in-group members (Nickerson). The values, attitudes and intentions are shared by group members and are self-defining properties, when the in-groups value, definition or very existence is under threat hostility to outgroup starts (Hogg). The social identity approach allows a strong prediction that citizens will be negative towards asylum seekers
The Symbolic Interaction theory proposes the concept of “the looking glass self” where people mind what others think of them. Individuals create their self-concept and self-identity from interacting with others. Regarding interpersonal relationships, the symbolic interaction theory argues that people decide on whom to
He was interested in how adolescents go through ‘identity crisis’ to create (ego identity) or how failure to accomplish a secure ego leads to role diffusion. Tajfel however takes this process a step further by discussing intergroup discrimination through social comparisons between different groups. If our self –esteem is to be upheld then our group must compare positively with the out –groups. He attempted to find the minimal conditions that would lead members of an in- group to discriminate against an out group therefore the pursuit for individuality means that people identities with who they are through terms of ‘we’’ rather than ‘I’.
Evaluate research on conformity to group norms. (22 mark) Conformity is a type of social influence in which individuals change their behaviour to adapt to social norms. There are two types of conformity. One is private conformity, you think that the behaviours of the group are correct so you adapt to the norm. In public conformity, you think that the behaviours of the group are not correct but you feel social pressure.
The other consequence of social classification is that the individual makes the behaviors appropriate to the group prototype for the group (Ashforth and Mael, 1989). • Identity and Behavior As a result of social classification, the individual's recognition of himself as a member of certain groups affects the identity. According to SIT, there are two different types of identity, namely social and personal identity (Ashforth and Mael, 1989). The social identity includes the meanings and feelings of values that come from the groups in which the individual is included as a result of the social classification, while the physical attributes that distinguish the person from the other group members include characteristics such as individual experiences (Ashforth and Mael, 1989). The concept of social identity, which is at the core of the theory, includes self images from group
Deviance is weighed by the society’s reactions to the particular behavior, also it is measured by the society’s way of life so that it defines the unwelcoming behavior. It ignores the social order and some organizations believe, the reality in the society. The violation of the social norm in the society can be meant to be utilized as a way of sustaining power, position, and influence of a specific group of people or organizations in the society setting. In most cultures, it is based on the values, deeds, and beliefs that are achieved through interaction among the people in the society. From the understanding that culture is passed on to persons through intimate peer groups.
Social identity theory is based on four interrelated concepts: social categorization, social identification, social comparison and positive distinctiveness. Social categorization is tendency to divide and therefore categorise individuals into in-groups (individual belongs) and out-groups (individual does not belong); it groups different social circles based on the members’ stereotypical culture and behaviour. This often leads to category accentuation effect, which is exaggerating of intergroup differences and intragroup similarities; individual underestimate perceived variability within groups but overestimate variability between groups. Social identification is way of identifying individual with a particular social group based on their in-group norms and by doing so, may adopt some of the values and behaviours of that particular group. Social comparison and positive distinctiveness is when social identity contributes to our self-image so we seek positive social identities to maintain and enhance self-esteem.
An example of such adaptation is the ways in which stigmatized individuals manage their identity to conform to the structural norms and expectations of society. Goffman’s concept of ‘information control’ as a means of ‘stigma management’ provides us with a scenario in which agency and structure work together as both the justification and reason for motivated action for a stigmatized individual. Goffman (1963) implies that individuals are responsible for their own actions as well as able to manage the interpretations of others in relation their actions. Thus, stigmatized actors can tactfully represent themselves in a more socially acceptable and positive light. This is done primarily to control the conduct of others, especially the potentially negative responsive treatment towards the stigmatized person.
These questions ask about several ideas that help to define the meaning of social deviance, which is why a definition can 't give you the full meaning. To be able to understand social deviance we first have to talk about social norms. Henslin (2009) defined social norms as expectations, or rules of behavior, that reflect and enforce values. This is saying that in a society there are rules for the type of behavior that society considers to be acceptable. Going against these rules makes one a deviant.
Deviance; when people hear the term, usually constitutes images of criminal behaviour and other such negative notions. However, deviance, defined in Elements of Sociology, simply means to “stray from the norm or the usual” (Steckley and Letts 2013:143). But what are norms, who sets them and how does one stray away with it? While there are numerous amounts of theory in regards to social deviance, I have chosen a select few under the concept of social constructionism. Although deviance is not necessarily wrong in itself, using social constructionism, labelling theory, and primary deviance, demonstrates the adverse effects within an individual once internalized with an image as a deviant.