Learning theory has been widely discussed in my forums, being taught to be a deviant is the basis of a criminal at its purest form. It views people's interactions with various organizations, institutions, and processes in society; people in all walks of life have the potential to become criminals if they maintain destructive social relationships. This describes organized crime, crime families, and even singular crimes. These are taught to you at an early age or when you interact with the neighborhood thug. If you never saw a criminal you would less likely become a criminal.
Criminal Activity Then and Now Criminal justice is composed of many lateral departments that help us as a society to better understand the process that is started when criminal activity is suspected. We will examine how individuals learn how to commit crime and what motivates them to do so. This paper will discuss the steps that are taken once a crime is determine and how the Criminal Justice System is put into place to help solve and come to some type of resolution for the crime. This paper will further discuss the types of deterrence that are placed into society minds to help curve criminal behavior and activity. After reading this paper the reader should have a better understanding on how the Criminal Justice System works and why it is needed help promote a safe environment for our society.
Theorist Ronald Akers extended Sutherland’s differential association theory with a modern viewpoint known as the social learning theory. The social learning theory states that individuals commit crime through their association with or exposure to others. According to Akers, people learn how to be offenders based on their observations around them and their association with peers. Theorist Akers states that for one, “people can become involved in crime through imitation—that is by modeling criminal conduct. Second, and most significant, Akers contended that definition and imitation are most instrumental in determining initial forays into crime” (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball 2011:57).
It has been observed that there are numerous researches conducted on youth crime particularly in the United Kingdom which gave the emphasis on young individuals as offenders instead of victims of crime. Moreover, radical criminology significantly contributed to understand the youth crime through different theories. According to Yar (2012), radical criminology is known as the conflict philosophy. It centres its perceptions on crime and on regulation in the faith that capitalist civilisations precipitate as well as describe crime as the possessors by sense of production utilise their influence to endorse commandments that would regulate the working class and suppress intimidations to the supremacy of the governing class. Radical criminology
Though both social learning and social control theories address the socialization process, social learning theory maintains that humans are inherently good and are therefore taught delinquent behavior through the socialization process, just as they are any other behavior (McNamara 2014: pp. 115). Social learning theory holds that people become involved in criminal activity when the reasons, called definitions, to commit crime outweigh the definitions to abstain from it, which is normally determined by one’s social affiliations (McNamara 2014: pp. 118). For example, if a teenage boy hangs out with criminals and learns criminal behavior (including its rationalizations and reward) from them, then he will likely engage in criminal behavior because he will have more definitions for it than against it, according to the theory (McNamara 2014: pp.
According to Hirschi (1969) control theories assumes that all humans as a part of their nature are naturally prone to break the law. According to Cullen and Agnew (2011) control and bond theories state that humans are free to commit crimes if their social ties are weak or broken. Hirschi (1969) stated an interesting premise about human nature when he stated that all human beings are innately selfish and will pursue crime as a means to secure self gratification. According to Hirschi (1969) control theories created a new chapter in criminology, and began to ask “why do some people not commit crime?,” instead of continuing to ask “why do they commit crime?”. According to Cullen and Agnew (2011) Travis Hirschi control theory differed from previous theories such as differential association theory and strain theory.
This was based off of free will where people decided if they were going to commit a crime and what the consequences would be if they committed that crime. One aspect in the Rational Choice theory that relates to deterrence and classical theorists is Routine Activity theory. Routine Activity Theory is when people are victimized because of everyday interactions. These three factors that cause people to be victimized include people that seem vulnerable enough to be victimized, places where there aren’t a lot of police activity and proper guardianship are places where people will most likely be victimized, and when a person wants to commit or is thinking about committing a crime, that person will most likely commit that crime. This theory is based off of people’s rational choice to and their free will to commit a crime.
Drawing from the human ecological theories, Cohen and Felson (1979) suggested that the structural changes in routine activity patterns can influence crime rates by affecting the convergence in time and space of the three elements that I listed above. Offenders are on the prowl and looking for how alert the victim is, if their alone, and the time of the day. Followers of this theory believe that crime is inevitable, and that if the target is attractive enou... ... middle of paper ... ...erally take the opportunity. There are downfalls to this theory, as it does not take into account any other aspects of the individual committing the crime (Morrow, 2014). However, using the Routine Activity Theory, we can effectively create programs that make it more difficult not only for people to commit crime but also make them less easy to victimize (Morrow, 2014).
In criminology, examining why people commit crime is very important in the ongoing debate of how crime should be handled and prevented. Many theories have emerged over the years, and they continue to be explored, individually and in combination, as criminologists seek the best solutions in ultimately explaining what makes a person act the way they do and the causes for these actions. In addressing the social learning theory and the trait theory, we explore the similarities and the differences and where to look for on improvement. “If you look back to the original social learning theory, you find it is largely about people learning from each other, and it shows how technology is not part of the equation. Social learning theory has four elements,
The classical school of criminology is based on the Philosophy of the Enlightenment. People are generally considering what they can benefit after they have committed a crime, they have their free will to choose to commit or not, after balancing the chance of being caught, individuals will decide on to commit or not. Delinquency is an immoral form of behaviour which will weaken the society. To prevent crime, Taylor, Walton and Young (1973) highlighted the following to punish the criminals, they say the punishment is act as deterrent by encouraging the individual to follow the law, punishment must be proportional to the interest violated by crime itself, and certainty and swiftness of punishment is measured to be an effective punishment comparing to the severity of the