The Role of Autonomy and Responsibility Held by the Bourgeoisie during the Industrial Revolution During the Industrial Revolution the population was broken up into two classes; the minority was the rich, industrial middle class, the bourgeoisie, and the majority was the poor working class, the proletariat. The bourgeoisie believed in their rights to gain wealth and preserve individuality and in their duty to maintain these rights, which in turn determined the harsh laboring and living conditions of the working class. The indignities forced upon the lower class also caused movements that challenged the bourgeoisie to alter their beliefs. These included the creation of Communism, the Christian Socialist Movement, utopian models, and other theoretic views. The demands for social reforms from these movements along with the demands from the proletariat and other influential members of society, forced the bourgeoisie to modify their views to include moral justifications for their actions.
Industrialization Effects on Working Conditions Europe’s industrial advancements emphasized on production rather than the treatment of industrial workers. This included intolerable hours, poor working conditions, and living conditions for families (The Social Question in Coffin et.al, 465). The intolerable conditions of industrialization in the 19th century was referred to as the social question, which pertained to socialist thinkers. Thinkers of the industrial revolution, Robert Owen and Flora Tristan realized the problems of industrial advancement and argued a solution to address them. Owen was a socialist, who created a Utopian Society for his workers because he felt that the workers negative behaviors reflected from their poor surrounding environments.
The vast components of the working conditions, urbanization and technology are both detrimental and beneficial that had impacted many people’s lives during the industrial revolution. During the 18th century there has been a significant expansion in the coaling and such industries, as this continues more and more miners went to extract coal and others went to work often in very long hours and hazardous conditions. But many people at that time, starts working at an early age and the regulations towards what they have to do. The people of England average work day would equal around fourteen hours, six days a week, where they have to be in a dirty poorly lit environment. The children have to work near dangerous machines when they had no protection, not even shoes.
On the other hand, when the rights and... ... middle of paper ... ... other hand, Marx saw bourgeois democracy as a progressive force against the old feudal system. Marx supported democracy in capitalism. He worked for a society in which preliterate would take power and exercise the control over the means of production. c) A: In Marx’s view, class struggle takes a critical form with the development of capitalism. According to Marx two basic classes bourgeoisie, the owners of the means of production and Proletariat, the workers around which other less important classes are grouped, oppose each other in capitalist system.
Socialism wanted better treatment for factory workers so they wouldn’t have to work in horrible conditions and for the sickly and the poor people. One of the people who helped this happen was Karl Marx. Karl Marx wanted all the workers to rise up against the wealthy. He also wanted to create state-controlled economic systems and a society with no Coulombe 2 discriminations based on their social class. Another way they stopped an end to horrible working places is they made the Union.
In “Art vs. Trade” the bourgeoisie is consciously exploiting the working class. As mentioned earlier the entity of Trade believes that the world was created in order to fulfill his needs (Johnson Line 7). As a result he knowingly abuses Art and other people of the working class to get what he desires by overworking them. However, other members of the proletariat do not address their lack of power. The Marxist theory recognizes that due to the bourgeoisie’s hold over the superstructure, it has the ability to “entrap the proletariat into holding the sense of identity and worth” that the powerful class wants them to have (Dobie 93).
For the ruling class, it symbolizes a system where opportunities abound for those who are devoted, innovative, and work hard. Karl Marx and Emile Durkheim, prominent social theorists studied the division of labour in a capitalist economy and both of their views have merit. Marx, well renowned German philosopher was one of the first incredibly influential social activists in history. He fear that we live in a materially determined economy has come to light brighter than ever before. He believed that members of a society were in constant conflict with one another because the bourgeoisie exploited and dominated the proletarians by using labour as a cheap commodity.
Derived from his idea of surplus value was that of alienation. Marx gave an economic interpretation to alienation. People were alienated from their own labor; their work was appropriated by someone else and the work itself was compulsory, not creative; the cause was capitalism, and the cure was socialism. Marx believed that modern labor is an evolution of something that began centuries ago and encompassing everything from slave states to European feudalism right on up to today’s version of commercial capitalism; which, completed or perfected the capitalist technique of worker alienation. Marx is correct in saying that capitalism exploits the working class, and that working under capitalism is in fact “alienating”.
Similarly in Great Expectations Magwitch exclaims to Pip ‘I have lived rough, that you should live smooth; I worked hard, that you should be above work’ (Dickens 319). Pam Morris highlights that Magwitch’s speech ‘reconnects wealthy lifestyle and conspicuous consumption to the reality of their source in degraded and punishing labour’ (Morris 116). This segregation of certain individuals created a socio-economic barrier that resulted in the Eloi and Morlocks and also caused Pip’s contempt of Magwitch despite Magwitch being his benefactor. Marxism and socialism are important in relation to the individual’s place within the social and economic sphere and what effects it had. Dickens and Wells in their evaluation of this use Marxism to present their opinions and thoughts.
Priestley was a socialist and he preferred this to capitalism as a political belief. Socialism is the median between capitalism and communism. Socialism entails the possibility of free speech and an equal society in where people are restricted in their attempts to use their power to earn more money. Priestley uses a diverse range of characters. Arthur Birling and Eva Smith are such different characters.