SN2 reactions are described as bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions that occur in one concerted step without the formation of a carbocation intermediate. These reactions are performed most effectively in polar aprotic solvents such as acetone. The steric hindrance presented in the substrate is considered the most important factor due to the fact that the more steric hindrance there is around the halide, the harder it is for it to leave. The collected data for the SN2 reactions support this logic by showing that primary halides on substrates 4, 6, and 7 occurred within the first 5 minutes of the reaction. Substrates 6 and 7 were acted on immediately because 6 is allylic and 7 is benzylic, which creates an over lap of the pi bonds …show more content…
They are best performed in polar protic solvents such as ethanol, which allows for further stabilization of the carbocation. Steric hindrance has the opposite effect on SN1 reactions than SN2 reactions; the steric hindrance carbon chain helps stabilize the carbocation and results in a high inductive effect. This is in terms of the attraction of the nucleophile for the carbocation. The stabilization of the carbocation is exemplified by substrate 5 which reacted immediately in the presence of ethanolic silver nitrate solution. Although substrates 6 and 7 are primary halides, the allylic and benzylic nature allows the pi bonds to create a more stable environment for the surrounding carbocation allowing for a faster reaction. Substrate 1 and 2 both formed turbidity, although substrate 2 reacted faster because it is a better leaving group due to its increased size. Substrate 8 occurred immediately although it is only a secondary bromine due to bromine being such a good leaving group as well as because the silver acts as a great catalyst. Substrate 3 did not react due to the lack stability in terms of surrounding steric
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Discussion and Conclusions: Interpreting these results have concluded that relative reactivity of these three anilines in order of most reactive to least reactive go; Aniline > Anisole > Acetanilide. Aniline, has an NH2 , the most active substituent , and adds to any ortho/para position available on the ring. This data is confirmed with the product obtained, (2,4,6 tribromoaniline, mp of 108-110 C). As for anisole, it has a strongly activating group attached, OMe an alkoxy group, and it added in two of the three available spots, both ortho. The results conclude: (2,4-Dibromoanisol mp 55-58 C ). Acetanilide has a strong activating group attached, acylamino group, but this group is large and the ortho positions are somewhat hindered so the majority of the product obtained added at the para position, results conclude: (p-bromoacetanilide mp 160-165 C). Since all the substituents attached to the aromatic rings were activators the only products able to be obtained were ortho/para products.
Okay, if our lithium weight is going to be 6.941 g/moL Then that means we have to take 24.6g of Lithium and multiply it by 1 mol of Lithium over 6.941 g of Lithium. This would equal to be 3.544 mol of Lithium. Then we have to take that 3.544 and multiply it by 1 mol of hydrogen gas over 2 mol of lithium. Which would then equal into 1.772 mol of hydrogen gas. We can then figure out that 1.772 is our “n”. The “T” is our 301 Kelvin, the “P” is our 1.01 atm and the “R” is our 0.0820 which would be the L atm over mol k. And we can’t forget about our “V” which would be V equals nRT over P which equals 1.772 mol divided by 0.0820 L atm over mol kelvin multiplied by 301 kelvin over 1.01 atm which equals to our final answer of: 43.33 of H2
The first thing to do is to find the initial concentration (C2) of cobalt isopropanol:
This report presents the implementation of a Clock element and the use of the seven segment display on the Altera DE2-115 board. This experimentation with the clock and display are valuable since they are a precursor to future labs to come. In order to make these items work it required the use or Verilog code, which was given for parts 1, 2, and 3.
This means if the concentration were increased, the rate would be increased also. This statement is not true to a zero order reaction, therefore it can be determined that both are not zero order. By observing the first order graph it is seen that the 1-bromobutane is decreasing in a curve while the 1-chlorobutane is straight with a negative slope. With a first order reaction, generally the rate increases linearly which means the rate is proportional to the concentration. This is not occurring with the 1-bromobutane, however is opposite with the 1-chlorobutane. For the compound to be first order the slope is linear with –k, this is evident. Therefore, it is concluded that 1-chlorobutane shows to be a first order reaction. Finally, the second order graph is examined and it is apparent that the points for 1-bromobutane form an increasing straight line with a positive slope, which is essential considering it is a plot of the inverse concentration. The 1-chlorobutane cannot be second order due to the –k value. However, theoretically both electrophiles should follow an SN2 reaction because they are primary alkyl halides. Therefore the interpretation of the graphs makes sense, however due to very similar results the data may be inaccurate in some areas. Therefore, when the leaving group detaches, and the new bond with the nucleophile forms, it occurs immediately therefore, there is no intermediate and the attack occurs
Purpose/Introduction: In this experiment, four elimination reactions were compared and contrasted under acidic (H2SO4) and basic (KOC(CO3)3) conditions. Acid-catalyzed dehydration was done on 2-butanol and 1-butanol; a 2o and 1o alcohol, respectively. The base-induced dehydrobromination was performed on 2-bromobutane and 1-bromobutane isomeric halides. The stereochemistry and regiochemistry of the four reactions were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) to determine product distribution (assuming that the amount of each product in the gas mixture is proportional to the area under its complementary GC peak).
This experiment focuses on the SN2 nucleophile substitution reaction of converting 1-butanol (an alcohol) to 1-bromobutane (an alkyl halide). There are two types of substitution mechanisms that could be used, SN1 and SN2. SN1 mechanisms take place in two steps. The first rate-determining step is the ionization of the molecule. This mechanism is called unimolecular because its rate is only dependent on the concentration of the leaving group. The second step is the fast, exothermic nucleophile addition. In an SN2 reaction the leaving group leaves as the nucleophile attacks all in one step. Because this happens at one time, the nucleophile must attack from the opposite side from which the leaving group is leaving. For this reason, SN2 reactions
Have you ever gone out on a midsummer night, and seen the familiar flash and subsequent boom of a firework going off? Did you ever wonder what might be causing that firework to explode in a seemingly random fashion? What you are seeing is actually a chemical reaction or the process by which the atoms of one or more substances are rearranged to form different substances. This definition covers all forms of chemical changes, and to better organize this broad spectrum of reactions, scientists have defined several types of reactions. Most importantly, they defined the arrangement of atoms before the reaction occurs as the, “reactants” of a chemical equation, and the arrangement of atoms at the end as the, “products” of a chemical equation.
The purpose of this lab is to create and perform a chemical reaction to find the percent yield. In this lab it is to be believed that iron will react with sulfur to create iron sulfide. To be able to perform this chemical reaction heat needs to touch the mixture of the two elements, whether it be with a direct flame to the mixture or a preheated glass rod. The independent variable would be the amount of iron and sulfur being used. The dependent variable would be the percent yield found at the end of the lab.
The experiment was to investigate what are the products of a chemical reaction, more specifically, what iron compound is formed. A chemical reaction is anything that has had a color change, the formation of a solid, bubble, or a temperature change. In an oxidation-reduction reaction, charges of molecules are going to change. The first balanced equation was Cu〖SO〗_4+Fe(s)→Fe〖SO〗_4+Cu. The second balanced equation was 2Cu〖SO〗_4+3Fe(s) →3〖Fe〗_2 (〖SO〗_4 )_3+Cu. Given the two different chemical formulas, the theoretical yield was found to determine how much copper would be left over after the reaction by using the balanced chemical equations and stoichiometry. With the iron being the limiting reagent, we knew that the excess of copper product
Reduced graphene oxide functionalized structure controlled nickel sulfide (NiS, NiS2, Ni3S4) nanoparticles were synthesized using a temperature-controlled injection method. In single-solvent experiments oleylamine was used as solvent, in the case of multi-solvent oleylamine, oleic acid and octadecine were mixed together. The respective nickel sulfide phases were synthesized on the reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets through the single-step temperature controlled injection processes. The complications in the synthesis of rGO/nickel sulfide phases were overcome by adjusting the solvent and source concentrations. The x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the phase control of nickel sulfide on rGO supports.