Small Scale Gold Mining Essay

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 Small Scale gold mining in Ghana
Small scale mining is mining that is done on concessions of 25 acres maximum, by individuals or small groups of people who are poor. Small scale mining is labour intensive, mostly employing crude methods and tools such as pick-axes, shovels, pans etc. In Ghana small scale mining is done by methods that involve little capital expenditure by individuals or persons less than ten in number or by ten or more person co-operatives. Small scale mining also known as artisanal mining(ASM) was legalized in Ghana in 1989 after the Economic Recovery program (ERP).The small scale gold mining law 1989(PNDC Law 218) regulates small scale gold mining in Ghana. Since its legalization, the small scale mining sector has been growing astronomically. The sector also continues to have significance in the economy in terms of employment and creation of wealth. Small scale mining (SSM) is estimated to directly employ one million people and indirectly; 4.5 million. Small scale mining in 2014 contributed 34.4 % of the total gold production in Ghana. Since 1989, small scale gold mining has increased tenfold to 1,500 000 ounces from 17,234 ounces. From 2005 to 2013, gold produced by small scale miners increased seven fold from 225, 411 to 1, 576, 478 ounces. The percentage share of gold production by
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The Kings and chiefs of these areas do not only rule over the people, but serve as custodians of the land. These chiefs see lands in their traditional areas as the property of their ancestors passed down to them and thus their own. In order to mine, the small-scale miner must not only fulfil the requirements of the law, but may have to appease the chief by paying huge sums of money to the traditional ruler. Sometimes, chiefs may exercise the sole power without recourse to the provisions of the law, and allocate lands to ignorant small-scale miners to operate
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