Sleep: Declarative Memory, And Long Term Memory And Memory

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Literature Review Sleep is a vital portion of human life. Sleep helps the body recharge and repair. In recent history literature has been produced that supports a link between declarative memory and sleep. The aim of this literature review is to exaime previous studies surrounding the relationship between sleep intervals and long term memory retention. Sleep smart – optimizing sleep for declarative learning and memory authored by Gorden Feld and Susanne Diekelman in 2015 reviews neurological studies done by other academics in the field and appoarches to sleep’s interaction with declarative memory in the slow wave sleep interval. The relavent article portion focouses on encoding, the learning of information, consolidation…show more content…
The 23 male participants were each assigned an experimental sleep group and participated in two nights of testing one week apart. The first experimental group was the early retention condition who learned for 45 minutes then slept for 3 and were awoken for a 15 minute retrieval session. The second experimental group was the late retention condition; they were sleep deprived for a longer period of time. The second group followed the same routine of learning, sleeping and retrieval. The third group was kept awake for the entire experiment and followed the same timeline. Memory was tested using an emotional and neutral text and two extra texts. Participants were asked to memorise as many details as possible, following this the participants were asked to rate how arousing the text was on a scale 7 point scale, -3 to +3 under 11 subcategories. Following this free recall was tested by asking participants to write down as many details as possible, there was not time limit. The results indicate that the first experimental group had superior retention. Those who experienced late sleep had better retention of emotional texts after late sleep compared to late…show more content…
Walker’s 2006 article Sleep Facilitates Consolidation of Emotional Declarative Memory provides further insight into memory retention. The study looked at both neutral and arousing episodic memory in a 12-hour time span either following or without sleep and whether or not the participant’s memory is triggered by an episode (“remember”) or make a judgment about something they have previously experienced (“know”). Hu, Stylos-Allan, Walker’s hypothesis was that sleep-dependent modulation of episodic memory would be particularly prominent for emotionally arousing stimuli. There were 14 participants, 8 female, 6 male. Administered twice during a 12-hour period participants were required to complete an emotional memory task, each stimuli contained 300 picture slides specified on arousal strength but only 180 were shown to participant, 60 were considered arousing and 60 were considered neutral. The group of participants was split into two groups: those who experienced the wake phase first and those who experienced the sleep phase first. The following week the participants returned and completed the level. In the follow up participants had to identify if photos were in the original set of stimuli shown or not. The subjects had to indicate if they made a recall judgment and had seen the image before (remember) or if they knew it was in the previous stimuli selection but could not provide a context (know) or they thought the

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