Leadership has been described as a “complex process having multiple dimensions” (Northouse, 2013). Over the past 60 years, scholars and practitioners have introduced a vast amount of leadership models and theories to explain this complex field and examine its many perspectives. Numerous leadership theories and models have attempted to define what makes a leader effective. From the early 1900s, the trait paradigm dominated leadership literature, focusing on inherited traits of leaders and suggesting that “leaders are born, not made”. However, during the 1950s, the trait approach lost enthusiasm as focus shifted to the behavior of leaders. Similar to the trait theory, the behavioral paradigm was based on general effective leadership behaviors …show more content…
A leader's situation or environment plays a critical role in his or her success or failure, especially in today's ever-changing organizations and marketplace. The contingency and situational leadership perspectives, such as Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership and Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership Theory, proposed that a leader's effectiveness is influenced by situational factors as well, rather than simply traits and behaviors. Both leadership theories introduced a pragmatic approach to leadership by recognizing leadership as an interactive process involving the leader, the follower, and other internal and external organizational factors. Fiedler and Hersey and Blanchard's theories broke ground in the leadership field by departing from the “one style fits all” leadership …show more content…
However, Fielder's theory provides useful implications for understanding the complex leadership process. First, Fielder's theory demonstrates that it is unrealistic for an organization to require a leader to be effective in every situation. Fielder argues that leaders should be placed in situations which match their style in order to optimize success. He proposed that organizations “build an organizational environment in which the leader can perform well” (Koontz, 2009). Fielder stressed that placing leaders in “mismatched” situations places a tremendous amount of pressure on a leaders which ultimately results in decreased organizational performance (Northouse, 2013). Second, Fielder's theory provides useful information to organization to help them in determining which leaders are better suited for certain situations. Using the Fielder's theory information, an organization can determine the likelihood of success before placing a leader in an a certain
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The paramount between all the leadership philosophers to deliberate regarding the situational variables, in accordance with Fred Fiedler, the competence of the leadership technique is contingent on the circumstances. Accordingly, he in consort with his colleagues characterized the situational variables and scrutinized their connection with the appropriateness of leadership approaches. (Business Jargons, n.d.)
Working at a large healthcare organization, it is important that managers are aware of the different management styles. This will help in becoming effective leaders. The theory I have identified in my organizations Situational Theory. Situational leadership
Situational theory tends to look at the situation in isolation from the leader and the followers. Just as the trait approach views personality traits in isolation, so too, the situational approach fails to give adequate attention to the total process that results in leadership. Once again, we need to emphasize the idea of leadership as an interaction influence system involving a leader, follower, and situational variables.
According to Fiedler (cited in Bolden, Gosling, Marturano & Dennison, 2003)., there is no single characteristic or trait that will create a successful leadership style. Rather, he argues that situations actually shape a general leadership style of a manager. Bolden, Gosling, Marturano and Dennison (2003) have observed that within an environment with repetitive tasks, the most effective leadership style might be a directive one, while a participative leadership style might be required in a dynamic environment. Being an effective leader means to control important specific situations. Taking into account these situations, Fiedler presented three situational components that are considered essential for an effective leadership: leader-member relations, task-structure and position power.
In the context of the Situational model leadership theory, there are three identifiable weaknesses in my leadership practice. These weaknesses represent shortcomings in my role as a leader and might prevent my team from fully executing the organization’s mission. The three weaknesses are:
Situational leadership is a theory which was designed in 1969 by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard. The “contingency theories of leadership” states that a leader’s effectiveness is dependent on their behaviours in relation to different situational factors. Thus, situational leadership theory, relates to how a leader 's effectiveness is depend on their ability to adjust their leadership behaviour to the required level of the “followers” capability or if the situation is modified.
Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K. (n.d.) Situational Leadership. In Wren, J.T. (Ed.). (1995). The Leader’s Companion (pp. 207-211). New York: Simon & Schuster.
The leadership is a result of a combination of traits, with special emphasis on the personal qualities of the leader, which he should possess certain personality traits that would be special facilitators in leadership performance. This theory shows that leaders are born as such, there is no likelihood of 'making' them later with personal development techniques.
Leadership at times can be a complex topic to delve into and may appear to be a simple and graspable concept for a certain few. Leadership skills are not simply acquired through position, seniority, pay scale, or the amount of titles an individual holds but is a characteristic acquired or is an innate trait for the fortunate few who possess it. Leadership can be misconstrued with management; a manager “manages” the daily operations of a company’s work while a leader envisions, influences, and empowers the individuals around them.
In Situational Leadership theories it is highly recognized the workplace is a complex setting subject to rapid changes. For this reason, it is unlikely that there is one specific way to deal with such arising situation hence leading effectively depends on the situation at hand.
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) asserts that a leader’s effectiveness is dependent upon the readiness, or ability and willingness, of the leader’s followers to complete a task. This leadership style is an amalgamation of task-oriented and relationship-oriented characteristics that are employed depending upon the situation and the followers involved. According to the SLT, as followers increase in readiness the leader’s style is to adapt accordingly (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2009).
The situational theory of leadership is based on the characteristics of the organizational followers and determining the appropriate leadership behavior. The theory has four standard specialist styles, organizing, supporting, educating, and entrusting. The style associated changes in perspective of the task and behaviors of the followers or employees. “The situational leadership theory suggests the difference between the successful and unsuccessful of the four leadership styles is the appropriateness of the leader's behavior to the particular situation in which it is used” (Waller, D, 1989) or the ability of the leader to change based on the needs of the follower or employee. The situational theory evaluates the aficionados by ability, duty, and advancement the pioneer changes the activity style to support the follower's ability to achieve the various leveled targets.
and styles. In this paper, situational leadership theory will be discussed and its relevance in
Contingency theory though developed by some researchers in Ohios University in 1940s but, it was popularized by Fiedler in 1967. The theory according to Fiedler (F1967) saw leadership behavior as a functions of three situational factors: leader–member relations which is the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader; task structure which is the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized (that is, structured or unstructured); and position power which is the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.