Situated Cognition

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Situated Cognition

Learning and Knowledge Relates to Situated Cognition

"Learning and knowing are integrally and inherently situated in the everyday world of human activity" (Wilson, 1993, p.71). Learning is situated in the context in which it is taught. In other words, the context in which something is learned is very important. The activity in which the learner is engaged in at the time of learning is also important (Griffin and Griffin, 1996, p.293). If the goal of a learner is to solve day-to-day life experiences, they must engage in such opportunities.

In order to understand and gain knowledge, learning theories stress the importance of creating a relationship between all pieces of information, the learner, and the environment. It is the responsibility of both the teacher and the learner to link the appropriate information together. If students can develop a relationship for the "underlying reasons for ‘how’ and ‘why’ to use specific procedures, they will be able to store this information as part of their knowledge network," and develop links with other pieces of information (Gersten and Baker, 1998, p.24). On the contrary, if learners learn facts of information that are isolated from a meaningful context, their understanding is often incomplete and meaningless. As a result of these linked relationships between individuals and environments, knowledge is the prevailing outcome. In summary, "knowledge is situated, being in part a product of the activity, context, and culture in which it is developed and used (Brown, Collins, and Duguid, 1989, p.32).

What is Situated Cognition?

Situated Cognition is a way to "address difficulties students have in retention and generalization" (Gersten and Baker, 1998, p.23). It ...

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...or Well-Structured and Ill-Structured Problem-Solving Learning Outcomes. ETR&D, Vol. 45, No. 1, 1997, pgs. 65-94, SSN 1024-1629.

Moore, Beverly. Situated Cognition Versus Traditional Cognitive Theories of Learning. Education, V119, N1, pgs 161-171, Fall 1998.

Moore, Joyce L.; Lin, Xiaodong; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Petrosino, Anthony; Hickey, Daniel T.; Campbell, Olin; and Hmelo, Cindy. The Relationship Between Situated Cognition and Anchored Instruction: A Response to Tripp. Educational Technology, October, 1994.

Wilson, Arthur L. The Promise of Situated Cognition. New Directions for Adults and Continuing Education, No. 57, Spring, 1993

Wisner, Alain. The Etienne Grandjean Memorial Lecture: Situated Cognition and Action-Implications for Ergonomics Work Analysis and Anthropotechnology. Ergonomics, Jossey-Bass Publishers, 1995, Vol. 38, No.8, Pgs. 1542-1557.
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