A recent research article by Gillam, Peña, Bedore, Bohman and Mendez-Perez (2013) examined the accuracy of the current EpiSLI testing model for bilingual children with specific language impairment (SLI). Additionally, it explored whether the current EpiSLI model could be modified to give better results in the diagnosis of SLI in bilingual children. Gillam et al. (2013) recruited and screened 1,192 kindergarteners identified as English Language Learners (ELLs), using a bilingual screener to evaluate each child's grasp of both English and Spanish. A follow up study was conducted when the children reached first grade.
Children raised bilingually from birth are “simultaneous” bilingual speakers and children who learn their second language after their native tongue are considered “sequential” bilingual children. If being monolingual helps children learn concepts, vocabulary and speech patterns faster than their bilingual classmates, then its advantageous to be monolingual. However, if being bilingual assists children in these areas and monolinguals fall behind, it is better to be bilingual. Understanding the advantages and disadvantages to both bilingualism and monolingualism can help educators, caregivers and parents understand what they can expect from their children. Bibliographic Reference: Axmear, E., Reichele, J., Alamsaputra, M., Kohnert, K., Drager, K., & Sellnow, K. (2005).
Children often put together or combine two or more separate language in their utterances. Therefore, language mixing is a phenomenon of bilingual and happens in young children. The aim of this paper is to provide further evidences on the result of Lindholm and Padilla (1977) study in the article “Language Mixing in Bilingual Children”, and these evidences agreed with their study. The study reveals that bilingual children differentiate their two languages when they are increased the age. Extending of their research, the result provides that most English words appear in Spanish utterances of Spanish-English children when bilingual children mix language at lexical, phonology and phrasal level.
As the limitation of the cognition and maturity, children learn language mostly from the outer environment stimulation created by their parents, educators and peers. The quality and quantity of language input, functioning as the stimulation, by interacting with the people around the children have a positive influence on children’s language learning (Bradley and Caldwell 1976; Clarke-Stewart 1973; McCartney 1984; and NICHD 2000). Therefore, it is beneficial for both parents and teachers to know how the interaction can improve the children’s English proficiency. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to introduce the role of the interaction in early L2 development and the implication of the interaction of children in education. This paper is going to introduce the topic in three aspects.
Analysis Children who received a cochlear implant in appropriate time are more likely to achieve age appropriate spoken language. Article 2 “Age or experience? The influence of age implantation and social and linguistic environment on language development in children with cochlear implants” Method Children who’d had implantations at different ages were examined, follow ups on linguistic progress were done 12,18,24 &30 months later. Parents helped fill the questionnaire. Results Children who ha... ... middle of paper ... ... period-period of heightened sensitivity to learning language Cochlear implant-an electronic device that can help provide a sense of sound to a hearing impared individual Language-a rule governed communication system Reference group-a group to which another group is compared to Reference Nicholas,J.G.,& Geers,A.E.
Taking working memory training from the laboratory into schools. Educational Psychology: An international Journal of Experimental Educational Psychology. DOI: 10.1080/01443410.2013797338. Lesaux, N., & Siegel, L. (2003). The Developmental of Reading in Children Who Speak English as a Second Language.
Even though, second language learners have those instilled variables, it is imperative for the teachers to guide learning and set the conditions of learning. Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Clinical Actions In the article, Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Issues, Evidence, and Implications for Clinical Actions, Kohner (2010) indicate numerous school districts that have implemented bilingual programs to help the English Language Learners. Dual language programs enhance student outcomes and close the achievement gap of Second Language Learners (Coyoca and Lee, 2009... ... middle of paper ... ... learners enjoy each others’ culture and life experiences as they relate to subject-areas (Nemeth, 2009). Conclusion The population of the United States increased with school age children speaking English as their second language. Strong community leaders and school districts are needed to ensure English language learners attend effective programs that teach them English and push them to graduate successfully (Buysse, Castro, and Peisner-Feinberg, 2010).
Krashen (2000) maintains that educating children in their first language can aid their acquisition of their second language. When education programmes have the following three components they are successful in educating bilingual learners: subject matter teaching in the first language, literacy development in the first language, comprehensible input in English (Krashen, 2000). Baker (2006) states that within the early development of bilingualism there are two types: ‘simultaneous’ and ‘sequential’. The differences between the two are the age which the child is introduced to the second language and the circumstances behind it. Simultaneous bilingualism is when a child learns two languages from birth, at the same time, e.g.
This is the goal I want to achieve as a teacher and shows a relationship to my action research question. Apthorp, Randel, Cherasaro, Clark, McKeown, & Beck, (2012) research suggests that children’s oral vocabulary in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade predicts future reading achievement in both later elementary grades and high school. Together with, It is the oral vocabularies of emergent readers that first allow them access to meaning when applying letter-sound correspondences which is the dilemma that I have been going through the years. How can I instruct the learners into achieving this skill? Apthorp et al.
(2004). Young Children Develop in an Environment of Relationships: Working PaperNo.1. Retrieved from http:// www.developing child.harvard.edu. Tabors, P. (2008). One child, two languages: A guide for early childhood educators of children learning English as a second language (2nd ed.).