Similarities that caused Conflict

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Conflicts in of 17th century colonial British North America have mainly been portrayed as a clash between Europeans, Native Americans, African Americans, and the French due to differences in culture, race, and religion. However, recently historians such as Ann M. Little author of Abraham and Arms and T.H Breen and Steve Innes co-authors of Myne Owne Ground, have been gathering evidence that may dispute these claims. These historians suggest that while differences between these groups played a major role in their struggles to live peacefully among one another in the Virginia and Chesapeake regions, similarities such as the tendency to compete for reputation as a man, honor, power, and property likewise was a cause for battle. Historians have also found that though competition for similar things was prevalent, the nature of such conflict changed over time. Ann M. Little’s Abraham in Arms, approaches colonial New England through the perspective of war and gender. Her analysis ultimately unearths the shared understanding of warfare and masculinity through the eyes of the English, Native American, and French settlers of the frontier. Little investigates two centuries of conflict in colonial New England spanning from the Pequot War of the 17th century to Seven Years’ war. Little attempts to interpret how the English, French, and Native Americans viewed one another’s actions through their own gender perspective and sense of proper social order. The struggle for reputation, honor, and power is what produced much of the conflict and fighting between the English, French, and Native Americans. At this time, most northeastern borderland people made their living through an agrarian-based economy, which meant all three people were fighting fo... ... middle of paper ... ...nnes 2005) . The number of free blacks that are clearly identified as independent householders on the tithable list is thirteen between 1644 and 1677 (Breen and Innes 2005). Although the numbers seems small, when put into context, it is revealed that 19 percent or ten out of every 53 black males in Northampton became householders (Breen and Innes 2005). Contrary to popular belief, many slaves were not directly imported from Africa, but had been previously stationed in Dutch colonies (Breen and Innes 2005). Their experiences in places such as New Netherland are central to the story of race relations on the Eastern Shore (Breen and Innes 2005). The Angolans that were transported to the New World had a familiarity with the mixed agricultural system and possessed diverse skills, which allowed them to excel when and if they became free planters (Breen and Innes 2005).
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