...inty between 1.0% (0.1/10.00*100) and 2.13% in the measured volume and 0.1/4.70*100). We also used a digital thermometer that allowed us to read the temperature readings from five degrees celcius to eighty degrees celcius. Since the digital thermometer have an absolute accuracy of plus or minus one degree celcius, it gives a percent uncertainty between 0.125 % (0.1 / 5.00 * 100) and 0.2 % (0.1/ 80.0 * 100). One of the difficulties we faced during the lab is reading the inverted graduated cylinder. To account for the inverse meniscus, we subtracted 0.2 mL from all the volumetric measurements to account for that. Volumetric uncertainty is the most important in determining the accuracy of this experiment since we are constantly checking for the volume throughout the lab. It also is the factor that gives the highest percent uncertainty out of all the instruments used.
Chapter two of The Universe and the Teacup deals with exponential numbers. More precisely, it deals with the difficulty humans have in processing very large and very small numbers. The term the book uses to describe this difficulty is "number numbness."
I made a chart to record how my thermometer measured freezing and boiling water, and proceeded to find the average. I took the average of each, and used them to find the average inaccuracy of the thermometer. I found that the average inaccuracy of the thermometer for freezing water was of by 0.7°C or -0.7°C. The average inaccuracy of the thermometer for boiling water I recorded as off by 1°C or -1°C.
Beyond daily living skills, numeracy is now being defined as knowledge that empowers citizens for life in their particular society (Bishop et al. 1993). Thus, numeracy has economic, social, and political consequences for individuals, organizations, and society. Low levels of numeracy limit access to education, training, and jobs; on the job, it can hinder performance and productivity. Lack of numeracy skills can cause overdependence on experts and professionals and uncritical acceptance of charlatans and the claims of pseudoscience (Dewdney 1993). Inability to interpret numerical information can be costly financially; it can limit full citizen participation and make people vulnerable to political or economic manipulation.
General uncertainty – the quality of the readings of most instruments decreases over time due to any number of environmental and internal factors, as frequent calibration is necessary. When several consecutive incorrect readings are taken for a liquid of known specific density, it is clear that the hydrometer is out of
In this experiment, there were several objectives. First, this lab was designed to determine the difference, if any, between the densities of Coke and Diet Coke. It was designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of several lab equipment measurements. This lab was also designed to be an introduction to the LabQuest Data and the Logger Pro data analysis database. Random, systematic, and gross errors are errors made during experiments that can have significant effects to the results. Random errors do not really have a specific cause, but still causes a few of the measurements to either be a little high or a little low. Systematic errors occur when there are limitations or mistakes on lab equipment or lab procedures. These kinds of errors cause measurements to be either be always high or always low. The last kind of error is gross errors. Gross errors occur when machines or equipment fail completely. However, gross errors usually occur due to a personal mistake. For this experiment, the number of significant figures is very important and depends on the equipment being used. When using the volumetric pipette and burette, the measurements are rounded to the hundredth place while in a graduated cylinder, it is rounded to the tenth place.
In addition, the data points were quite far apart. Having more intermediate data points would have enabled the scientists to more accurately model the continuous nature of the data with a discontinuous series of points.
Unlike Present Day, where most scientific groups and people use the standard unit of measurement; the metric system, there used to be a time when a variety of units of measurement were frequently used throughout the world, some units were also measured using the human body. For example length could be measured in numerous ways such as feet, hands, cubits, palms, rods, furlongs and many more. This creation of multiple varying units created an absence in common measurement standards, leading to a lot of misunderstanding and a significant drop of efficiency in the trade between countries. This havoc remained persistent until the eighteenth century when those countries had learnt that “United We Stand; Divided We Fall”-Aesop.
One possible source of experimental error could be not having a solid measurement of magnesium hydroxide nor citric acid. This is because we were told to measure out between 5.6g-5.8g for magnesium hydroxide and 14g-21g for citric acid. If accuracy measures how closely a measured value is to the accepted value and or true value, then accuracy may not have been an aspect that was achieved in this lab. Therefore, not having a solid precise measurement and accurate measurement was another source of experimental error.
In order for a set of data to be accurate, there needs to be another set of data from prior researchers that was concluded to be the only correct rate at which a birthday candle burns. Also, the data from this experiment cannot be identified as being precise, because if this experiment were to be repeated, due to the experimental error, the results would not be exact from the first time the experiment was performed. The first most important step of the procedure for data collection is the time that was recorded after lighting the candle. The time was important, because time was a factor in determining the answer to the experimental question, which was the rate at which the candle burns. Recording the time accurately is significant to the final results, because if the time was not recorded in this experiment, it would be impossible to answer the experimental question. The second step that contributed to data collection was the massing of the candle. If it wasn’t done properly, the rate of the burning candle would have been slightly off. These two steps were the most important in gathering the data, because the time and the mass were both needed in order to calculate the