Introduction Just as how people have different personalities, they also dream differently. Some dream in black and white while others dream in spectacularly vivid colors. Some even believe that they do not dream, but that is impossible, everybody dreams. We actually dream several dreams in a single night. From the day we are born till the day we die.
A lot of people questioned how dreams relate to their conscious life. Dream interpretation dates back to over one hundred years ago. Some try to remember their dreams, while others may experience de ja vu. A few reasons why people do not recall their dreams, is due to lack of sleep or not getting enough nutrients. In order to get to that point, one must become acquainted with the 4 stages of sleep cycle ending with the REM cycle, which is when you undergo the actual dream process.
With every nightmare, there is a reason for beginning. A nightmare is a vision with negative emotions. According to Psychology Today, “A nightmare is a dream occurring during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep that results in feelings of strong terror, fear, distress or extreme anxiety. This phenomenon tends to transpire in the latter part of the night and often times awakens the sleeper, who is likely to recall the content of the dream.” The nightmares begin sometime in childhood and usually begins to lessen around or after the age of ten. For some people nightmares do not stop.
Nightmares mostly occur in children because of their growing minds and wonders. Along with nightmares, there are also night terrors. These are more terrifying than nightmares and occur in children from ages three to five years old. Night terrors are more common in men than in women. Night terrors usually are the cause of sleeping disorders, such as sleepwalking and sleep talking.
Traumatic events are often dealt with dreams through people. If an adult had had a troubled childhood their nightmares would more likely be about that. “Roughly 25 percent of children ages 5 to 12 report being awakened by bad dreams at least once a week.” (Angier 1). Night terrors are a little different. When you have night terrors you are usually screaming and thrashing around and it is usually hard to wake the person up.
Although both nightmare and night terrors bring great discomfort to the individual, it is important to note that they are different disorders. There are signs/symptoms that an individual can present that easily help identify a nightmare disorder. The most common sign is seen when an individual repeatedly awakes from his or her sleep, during the second half of his or her sleep. On awakening, the sufferer is usually rapidly orientated and alert. Moaning, moving, talking or flailing to indicate a potentially disturbing dream are also other possible signs of nightmare disorder (Regional Center, 2014).
Another difference between nightmares and night terrors, humans can over time develop a nightmare disorder. “Nightmare disorder is referred to by doctors as a Parasomnia — a type of sleep disorder that involves undesirable experiences that occur while you 're falling asleep, during sleep or when you 're waking up” (Nightmare 1). This kind of disorder
Nightmares are even more common among recovering alcoholics and are reported to be traumatic and severe. Nightmares are common in the addicted population because of an increased incidence of childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (Johnson, 2012).
« The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind ».1 While Freud already used hypnosis and free association with his patients, he soon felt the need to include the interpretation of dreams in psychoanalysis as well. Freud decided he would developped his 'theory of dreams' to go further in his analysis. According to Freud, dreams allow unconscious desires, fears or emotions to express themselves in a disguised way. Dreams are an expression of wish fulfilment communicating through symbols. Throughout this essay, we will ask ourselves how dreams and their interpretation can be useful to psychoanalysis.
In this paper, I will talk about what I have learned about three different views of dream interpretations. One theory made by Sigmund Freud who believed that dreams are triggered by unacceptable repressed wishes, often of a sexual nature. He argued that because dreams we experience are merely disguised versions of people real dreams. The other theory called activation–synthesis theory, made by Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley, based on the observation that during REM sleep, many brain-stem circuits become active and bombard the cerebral cortex with neural signals. The last theory, proposed by William Domhoff, is called the neurocognitive theory of dreaming, which demonstrates that dream content in general is continuous with waking conceptions and emotional preoccupations.