The 'Sickle' reference is in relation to the disordered shape red blood cells take. The way the disease is acquired is through hereditary genes. The disease is primarily characterized by chronic anemia, and frequent episodes of pain. Hemoglobin, an important element in the red blood cell is found to be defective. The job of hemoglobin molecules is to transfer oxygen from the lungs throughout the body, and then transfer carbon dioxide from the body back to the lungs, then finally out of the body altogether.
During this response, the production of proteins slows and this stress is thought to be damaging to the body's insulin resistance. Golgi Apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is a major organelle in eukaryotic cells. The main function of it is to make and package macromolecules like proteins. It's also made up of cisternae, and usually, has five or six. Each of these has a region containing enzymes with different functions.
The B cells are found in the bone marrow and released into the lymphatic systems and blood. It develops into plasma cells and secretes antibodies. The T cells undergoes processes in the thymus where there are two types of cells being made, namely the CD4+ helper cells , and the CD8+ cytotoxi... ... middle of paper ... ...de an endosome and connects with a lysosome which has acidic enzymes that kills and digests and forms a phagolysome. Unfortunately, this process does not always goes as planned because if the capsule of the pathogen is made out of complex sugars it would be hard to cling on to. For efficient binding with the phagocytes, the foreign pathogens need to be coated with complement proteins.
However, a patient with sickle cell has irregular hemoglobin cause by inherited genes. This “oxygen delivery” system cannot function properly because a gene Sickle Cell Anemia has mutated. This mutation results in distorted, “sickle-shaped” cells, which often get trapped in the blood vessels of the body. Because of this, a sickle cell patient can have severe oxygen deprivation resulting in extreme pain. Oxygen is necessary to survive and thrive, but when a person doesn’t receive enough oxygen to any part of the body, the consequences are excruciating.
Sickle cell anemia has various symptoms that may vary upon every individual. All the symptoms that a person may experience are basically the direct result of the abnormal shaped blood cells. These cells deprive tissues of oxygen and in time the lack of oxygen to the tissues damages the organs and leads to pain.
What is sickle cell anemia? Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease of red blood cells. Normally red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin A, which carries oxygen to all the organs in the body. With sickle cell anemia, however, the body makes a different kind of protein, called hemoglobin S. The problem is that when a red blood cell with hemoglobin S releases oxygen, the cell changes from the usual doughnut shape to a sickle or S shape, and becomes stiff rather than soft and flexible like normal red blood cells. This "sickled cell," which resembles a crescent moon, can't continue to glide through the small blood vessels as usual.
In the capillaries, the sticky, rigid, odd-shaped cells create a logjam. This causes a block in blood flow and deprives body tissues of their necessary oxygen. Without oxygen, cells begin to die and tissues suffer damage. These episodes are painful for the patient, but they are not permanent. Sickled red cells eventually regain their normal round shape when they are re-oxygenated and re-hydrated.
Type 1 diabetes results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin producing beta cells located in the Pancreas. It is because of this destruction that Type 1 diabetes patients need to take shots of insulin for the remainder of their life in order to control the glucose in the body itself. Where as a patient with type 2 diabetes can have higher levels of blood sugar in the body, and can eventually level out without the aid of insulin. It should be said that in both cases the bodies lack of insulin production causes the body to be unable to convert the glucose to energy. When this occurs the body begins to burn fatty acids required for energy production which begins to produce ketones in the body which are r... ... middle of paper ... ... predisposing the patient to renal deficiency.
Sickle-cell anemia is an illness in which the shape of red blood cells is altered to a sickle-like shape (Peachley, n.d.). It is basically the sickling of erythrocytes. The protein molecule, hemoglobin, is the reason for this altered shape. Hemoglobin is found on red blood cells and it is used to provide oxygen to tissues (Peachley, n.d.). In sickle-cell anemia the altered shape of the red blood cells prevent them from passing through blood vessels and this will result in an inadequate amount of oxygen being delivered to tissues in the body (Peachley, n.d.).
Sickle cell anemia hurts many people today in fact it hurts about 72,000 Americans. But some doctors are finding cures for this inherited disease. This disease causes mainly strokes and fever. With this disease a stroke is not predictable, a stroke can happen as early as a one month old as a baby. It can hurt a person really bad because it causes them to not be able to do many things like can't play sports, and things that gets your heart pumping because if the red blood cells gets clogged up it can causes a stroke because oxygen can't flow.