Hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein is a component of the red bloods cell which enable it perform its’ functions effectively (NIH, 2013). What are Thalassemias? Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders children inherit from their parents through genes. The body of a person with thalassemia will produce fewer red blood cells that are healthy with less hemoglobin than that of a person without this condition (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2013). When a person’s body produces red blood cell below normal, or less hemoglobin, a condition called anemia develops.
Normally, red blood cells live for about 120 days before new ones replace them.People with sickle cell conditions make a different form of hemoglobin A called hemoglobin S (S stands for sickle). Red blood cells containing mostly hemoglobin S do not live as long as normal red blood cells (normally about 16 days). They also become stiff, distorted in shape and have difficulty passing through the body's small blood vessels. When sickle-shaped cells block small blood vessels, less blood can get to that part of the body. Tissue that does not receive a normal blood flow eventually becomes damaged.
Sickled cells don't flow through blood vessels as easily, and usually cause blockage. This results in deprivation of oxygen rich blood to organs and tissues that need it. This causes the painful episodes that associate with the disease. This pain can seriously damage vital organs such as the heart, lungs, kidneys, spleen, pelvic bones and even the brain. Certain tissues can become infected and can cause other serious complications.
They grew up, had their own children and ended up passing the gene for sickle cell anemia onto their offspring. This disease is a hereditary blood disorder that affects the red blood cell. Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin which transports oxygen from your lungs to every part of your body. Hemoglobin's oxygen carrying ability is essential for living but if there is a structural defect on the pigmented molecule, it can be fatal. When a normal red blood cell distributes its oxygen, it has a disc shape.
Sickle cell anemia is something, which must be inherited, and this means that your family can only pass it onto you in the basis of genes, which are located on chromosomes (How does sickle cell cause disease, 2002). Genes are apart of the DNA molecule that codes for specific proteins (How does sickle cell cause disease, 2002). In relation to sickle cell anemia, these genes control the production of the beta globin subunit of hemoglobin (How does sickle cell cause disease, 2002). With regards to the heredity of this illness, chromosomes are a key factor (How does sickle cell cause disease, 2002). There are twenty-two pairs of human chromosomes, which are identical, with one of each of these twenty-two pairs coming from the mother, whereas the other are inherited from the father (How does sickle cell cause disease, 2002).
Red blood cells hold haemoglobin which carries oxygen and takes out carbon dioxide to and from the cells throughout different organs of the body. Platelets help poke holes in the blood vessels and form clots just as blood vessels are corrupted or damaged (What is Leukemia? par. 4 & 5). When these cells in the bone marrow divide uncontrollably, they form more white blood cells than required and thus, lead to leukemia cancer.
Sickle Cell Disease is a condition where there is not enough healthy red blood cells to carry oxygen throughout the body. Another name for sickle cell disease is sickle cell anemia. Sickle cell anemia is inherited as a simple recessive condition. In normal red blood cells, the cells are usually flexible and round. However, in sickle cell disease the red cells become rigid and sticky.
Sickle cell anemia is a blood disorder that is inherited from both parents in which the body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. In sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin in red blood cells links together; resulting in the red blood cells to become rigid and a C-shaped. These deformed cells block blood and oxygen flow in blood vessels. Sickle cells deteriorate quicker than normal red blood cells, which results in anemia. Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder.
Sickle cells contain abnormal hemoglobin due to a mutation in the hemoglobin chain. This type of hemoglobin is known as sickle hemoglobin or hemoglobin S. Sickle hemoglobin is what distorts red blood cells into a sickle shape. Sickle cells are sticky and less elastic than normal red blood cells. They are not able to pass through the blood as easily so in result they tend to block blood flow in blood vessels. Blocked blood flow causes pain, organ damage, and increases the risk for infections.
Newborn infants produce oxygen-rich hemoglobin. Shortly after birth, infants switch from producing fetal hemoglobin to adult hemoglobin. This switch in hemoglobin production triggers the painful symptoms of SCD (“Reversing Sickle,” 2011). Normal red blood cells are disc shaped. Those with SCA have an abnormal hemoglobin molecule, hemoglobin S, which alters the shape of red blood cells into a sickle, or crescent, shape (“Sickle cell,” n.d.).