What is sickle cell anemia? Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disease of red blood cells. Normally red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin A, which carries oxygen to all the organs in the body. With sickle cell anemia, however, the body makes a different kind of protein, called hemoglobin S. The problem is that when a red blood cell with hemoglobin S releases oxygen, the cell changes from the usual doughnut shape to a sickle or S shape, and becomes stiff rather than soft and flexible like normal red blood cells. This "sickled cell," which resembles a crescent moon, can't continue to glide through the small blood vessels as usual.
The 'Sickle' reference is in relation to the disordered shape red blood cells take. The way the disease is acquired is through hereditary genes. The disease is primarily characterized by chronic anemia, and frequent episodes of pain. Hemoglobin, an important element in the red blood cell is found to be defective. The job of hemoglobin molecules is to transfer oxygen from the lungs throughout the body, and then transfer carbon dioxide from the body back to the lungs, then finally out of the body altogether.
In the deoxygenated form, it forms into long arrays that come out the shape of the red cell and produce the characteristic sickling that characterizes the disease. The insolubility of deoxygenated (reduced) sickle hemoglobin is the basis of two rapid diagnostic laboratory tests for sickle cell anemia. Scientists recently have had some limited success in using genetic engineering techniques to get good copies of the beta globin gene into people with sickle cell anemia. If they can succeed in this endeavor, people with the disease may be cured but will still be able to pass the genes onto their offspring.
Like most illnesses, sickle cell anemia has one primary cause. In order for sickle cell anemia to occur, a sickle cell gene must be inherited from both the mother and the father, so that the child has two sickle cell genes (Shiel, 2006, para. 3). The sickle cell gene causes the body to make abnormal hemoglobin. As mentioned above, hemoglobin is a protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs (Nabili, 2008, para.
Many patients with acute renal failure suffer from anemia due to the decrease of red blood cells from lack of this vital hormone. The kidneys are responsible for water balance in the body as well. This is due to two important factors, the loop of Henle (found in the nephron) and anti-diuretic hormone (secreted by the pituitary gland). The two work toget... ... middle of paper ... ...nt with acute renal failure. Retrieved from www.kidneyatlas.com Brady, H. Singer, G. Acute Renal failure (1995, December).
Sickle cell anemia is a blood disorder that is inherited from both parents in which the body produces abnormally shaped red blood cells. In sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin in red blood cells links together; resulting in the red blood cells to become rigid and a C-shaped. These deformed cells block blood and oxygen flow in blood vessels. Sickle cells deteriorate quicker than normal red blood cells, which results in anemia. Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disorder.
However, in sickle cell disease the red cells become rigid and sticky. They are shaped like sickles or crescent moons. Because these cells are irregular, they can get stuck in small blood vessels. The small blood vessels slow or block blood flow. Without enough red blood cells in circulation a person's body cannot get the adequate amounts of oxygen needed to feel energized.
Hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein is a component of the red bloods cell which enable it perform its’ functions effectively (NIH, 2013). What are Thalassemias? Thalassemias are a group of blood disorders children inherit from their parents through genes. The body of a person with thalassemia will produce fewer red blood cells that are healthy with less hemoglobin than that of a person without this condition (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2013). When a person’s body produces red blood cell below normal, or less hemoglobin, a condition called anemia develops.
Topic: Thalassemia disorder Thalassemia is an inherited co-dominant blood disease. It is characterized by reduced synthesis of the hemoglobin and less red blood in children affected by this disorder. Hemoglobin is the means through which red blood cells carry oxygen in our body. We need two forms of globin genes to make beta globin chains in our body, one from each globin gene. If one or two of these genes are defective, it produces beta thalassemia which is the less severe form of this disease.
Cystic Fibrosis Results from Mutations in the genes encoding the cystic fibrosis trans membrane conductance regulator. This protein product is a traffic ATPase and C1 channel which localizes to the apical membrane of airway Epithelial. Breaking it down, Cystic Fibrosis is the most deadly common inherited disease affecting Caucasians in the United States. Cystic Fibrosis is a disorder that causes a thick and very sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tracks. Normally mucus in the lungs trap germs, which are then cleared out of the lungs, but in Cystic Fibrosis the mucus traps the germs in the lungs.