In boxing, the athlete's skill is evident by his or her strength and fighting ability, but traditionalists do not believe that women should display such aggressiveness. Individuals who enter into a non-traditional sport for their sex do have opportunities to excel in what they are passionate about, although these accomplishments often come with notoriety, labels, and sometimes even the loss of support of their family and friends. The difference between sports that are traditionally women's and those that are traditionally men's comes from historical thoughts about women's ability to endure physical activity. One of the dominant myths surrounding women was that they were inherently weak, and if they tried to become active, they would destroy their reproductive organs, and thus fail at their foremost occupation (Hult 84). This myth has been debunked, however the mentality rema... ... middle of paper ... ... No.4, November 1999: 403-420.
Female Athlete Salaries versus Male's For many years women have been fighting for equal pay, equal benefits, and equal rights. When Congress passed Title IX, women thought they had won the battle, but still they have a long way to go. In 1972,Congress passed the Educational Amendments. One section, Title IX prohibits discrimination against girls and women in federally funded education, which includes athletic programs (Feminist Majority Foundation). Congress developed Title IX because of the gross inequities in college sports (McCullough).
Women were believed to be too fragile for most sports and were told that they would have problems reproducing if they were too physically active. The women you see in sports early on were very feminine, both while participating in sports and in their personal lives. The women who were not as feminine suffered from criticism and felt great pressure to change their appearances to fit in with cultural norms. As the century progressed, the physicality of women in sports became more acceptable. Women who were not as feminine still had to deal with prejudice, and were sometimes labeled "homosexual" as a derogatory statement.
Some of the problems in high schools and colleges consist of insufficient scholarships for girls, not enough coaching jobs, a lack of equipment, and a limited amount of supplies. Not only does this inequality in athletic programs exist in both schools and colleges, but it is also prominent in many professional sports. After more than 25 years since the beginning of Title IX, there still is no gender equality among men and women in high school, college, and professional sports. Passed in 1972 by United States President Richard Nixon, Title IX was supposed to give women equality in sports, yet in the year 2001 there is still little difference in the way women are treated in sports. No legislative act has had a more powerful impact on the world of sports other than Title IX.
Women in Sports Historical evidence proves that women have been involved in sports since fourth century BC; but were not necessarily given the approval to participate. Many restrictions were enforced to keep women out of these male activities and were continually reinforced until the twentieth century. Women entering the world of sports were aware that they were placing themselves into a male dominated field. With their entrance into the sporting world, these women have opened themselves up to many different criticisms and to the possibility of exploitation within the media and from male authority figures. Women in sports are constantly striving for equality where hegemonic masculinity in social sporting institutions value male athleticism at the expense of female athletes.
From this film we gained a notion of where women have been and how far we've come in the sports world. In fact, the growing equality, autonomy and independence of women throughout the 20th century from the suffragette movement to the adoption of Title IX and the Equal Rights Amendment is linked directly with the growing prominence and acceptance of women in sports. The main themes of the film, along with the examination of women in sport, were the celebration of the female athlete and how far women have come in the sports world as well as a reminder that female athletes have not yet attained the same status as male athletes. The second film we watched was, Bend it Like Beckham, about a British girl of Indian descent who wants to play soccer. The conflict in this film deals with the opposing views of the athletic, modern, westernized-protagonist and her supportive, but more conservative and traditional parents, who worry about their tomboyish daughter who would rather play soccer than learn how to cook a full Indian dinner.
Throughout history, women competing in sports has been debated, and women were once excluded from sports entirely. Luckily, I was not born in this era. Within the last century, women have made complicated advances towards being created equal in sports. Broer discusses how women were once degraded from playing sports since the physical activity was considered unlady-like and masculine, but times are changing. When women tried to participate in athletic competitions, they were labeled as inferiors to the men and were thought to be unfeminine.
In today’s media, female athletes are continually sexualized and objectified, whereas male athletes are shown to have strength and power; to correct this problem society can take many steps including empowering young girls to play sports and encouraging media to cover women’s sports more often. Title IX was a federal civil rights legislation passed in 1972 that leveled the playing field for females seeking to participate in organized sports. The law forced educational institutions to allow girls and women equal access to school sports and facilities (Kane 99). Before Title IX society had questioned if it was okay for women to participate in organized sports in educational institutions. Title IX was a groundbreaking law to all women because it gave them hope that they can participate in sports without being questioned if it was culturally appropriate to participate in athletics.