Sepsis Research Paper

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Relatively few pathogens can cause sepsis. For causing sepsis bacteria should have certain features that provide their survival, proliferation and dissemination in human body. The characteristics of the pathogens, that most frequently cause sepsis, may or may not be common for all of them (see tab. 2).
Sepsis causing bacteria are both gram positive and gram negative. Gram-positive organisms are better suited to invade host tissues and elicit, in general, a brisker phagocytic response than gram-negative organisms [37]. The lack of endotoxin in the outer cell wall is compensated for by the presence of exposed peptidoglycan and a range of other toxic secreted products. It appears that cell wall components of gram-positive bacteria may signal
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The production of cytochrome c oxidase has no critical role in causing sepsis.
Certain structures of bacteria are indispensable for causing sepsis. All sepsis causing bacteria have S-layer and produce capsules, slime layer and biofilm (see tab. ). These structures protect the bacteria in the tissues against phagocytosis, ROS, lytic enzymes, immune complexes, etc., whereas in the bloodstream capsule and slime layer prevent triboelectric charging, attraction and fixation on the surface of erythrocytes, oxidation and killing by the oxygen released from erythrocytes [33 ].
Sepsis causing bacteria produce hemolysins . Erythrocytes are the main bactericidal cells in the bloodstream and hemolysins are necessary for bacterial survival in the bloodstream. If the speed of bacterial growth in the tissue is limited by host immune reactions, bacteria produce a capsule, slime layer and biofilm for surviving host attacks. After entering the bloodstream, bacterial capsule and slime layer prevent triboelectric charging and fixation on the surface of erythrocytes. If bacteria rapidly proliferate in the tissue, they are short of time to produce a capsule and slime layer and after entering the bloodstream, they are caught and fixed on the surface of erythrocytes. If bacteria survive oxidation on the surface of erythrocytes, they produce hemolysins that destroy erythrocytes or provide bacterial penetration into the inner space of erythrocytes. Hemolysins are important for the development of sepsis to advanced
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