... and quickly grow. Secondly, invasins help the bacteria spread in the host’s tissues. An invasion is a protein that acts locally to damage host cells to facilitate the growth and spread of the pathogen. More simply, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogens have a small army of invasins that basically attack the host very quickly and spread the bacteria out far – into the blood and organs. Another virulence factor of both Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogens is their cellular secretions. The secretions include antigens, enzymes, and toxins that assist with various functions needed to feed the bacteria and fend off the host’s immune defences.
Sepsis is also called Septicemia and is a poisoning of the blood. This is an attack of bacteria into the bloodstream. Sepsis does not need blood poisoning to occur; it can affect multiple organs or the entire body without it happening. Sepsis is the body’s systematic inflammatory response to a bacterial infection (Jones, 2017). The infection can also have a wound or a chest infection or can be spread throughout the entire body. Sepsis’ definition is “a life-threatening condition that arises when the body’s response to infection injures its own tissues and organs” (McClelland, 2014). Sepsis is a leading cause of hospital admissions and can lead to death in hospital patients worldwide. The death rate associated with
Renal and hepatic function tests include creatinine test, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) test, bilirubin test, and others. Urinalysis includes urine osmolality tests and urine culture tests. The sooner one’s sepsis is diagnosed and managed, the better the chances are one has to survive. There are three identifiable stages of sepsis. The three stages are, in order, sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock. The stage of sepsis is achieved when an infection enters the bloodstream and enacts inflammatory responses throughout the body. This stage is not as life threatening as the next two stages but should be assessed and treated for as soon as possible. The stage of severe sepsis is achieved when an infection disrupts the flow of blood to the brain or renal organs resulting towards organ failure. There can be an occurrence of gangrene in the arms, legs, fingers, and toes exhibiting tissue death caused by blood clots. If treatment is not given quickly in this stage then septic shock is bound to occur. The stage of septic shock is achieved when the overall blood pressure drops drastically leading to respiratory, cardiac, or organ failure and likely death This stage demands
Rello, J., Kollef, M., Diaz, E., & Rodriguez, A. (2000).Infectious diseases in critical care. (2nd ed., pp. 352-
Sepsis is a severe medical condition that is caused by an infection in the body that travels to the blood stream. This infection has extremely high death rates and can be linked to most admissions in the intensive care unit. There is a series of events that happens once an infection occurs in the body. These events are preventable if caught early on in this cascade.
...ly 24 hours postinfection, during the late exponential and early stationary phases, SpeB is dramatically upregulated as tissue invasion occurs and the bacteria disseminate (13). It is speculated that this upregulation occurs so that SpeB can cleave the GAS adhesive molecules and allow the bacteria to spread throughout the tissue during invasive infections (20). Following the dissemination of GAS in this stage, SpeB expression is once again downregulated as the bacterium invades the bloodstream. GAS selects for mutations in the CovRS regulatory system, which result in reduced expression of SpeB and a simultaneous enhancement of the production of another virulence factor, Sda1. Sda1 helps avoid host neutrophil extracellular traps, allowing the bacterium to survive in the bloodstream and produce the bacteremia and sepsis characteristic of invasive GAS infections (26).
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped aerobic bacterium. It is a primary cause of hospital-acquired infections. P. aeruginosa is primarily a nosocomial pathogen. It also acts as an opportunistic pathogen, which can only infect a host that is immunocompromised, due to an underlying disease or medication. Although, P. aeruginosa can cause damage to virtually any tissue in the body, it almost never affects the tissues of healthy individuals. It is a problematic pathogen in hospitals; infecting individuals with cancer, burn wound, catheters and cystic fibrosis. P. aeruginosa is most recognized for its resistance to a wide range of antibiotics. In its planktonic form, P. aeruginosa has been found to have many virulence factors. However, P. aeruginosa within biofilms have been found to have a resistance to antibiotics 1,000 times greater than that of its planktonic counterparts . Infections that are caused by bacterial biofilms are very persistent and very difficult to treat.
Bacteria and infections surround us on a daily basis and can also contribute to the spread of infection and disease. Infections can be potentially harmful to the human body and therefore need to be “controlled and prevented”. In facilities such as hospitals these germs can spread faster due to the amount of bacteria and sick patients surrounding these facilities. This means the control of these infections are to be a high priority. UKCC 2007-2014
Sepsis is defined as an exaggerated, overwhelming and uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response to an initially localised infection or tissue injury, which may lead to severe sepsis and septic shock if left untreated (Daniels, 2009; Robson & Daniels, 2013; Dellinger et al, 2013; Perman, Goyal & Gaieski, 2012; Vanzant & Schmelzer, 2011). Septic shock can be classified by acute circulatory failure as a result of massive vasodilation, increased capillary permeability and decreased vascular resistance in the body, causing refractory hypotension despite adequate fluid resuscitation. This leads to irreversible tissue ischaemia, end organ failure and ultimately, death (McClelland & Moxon, 2014; Sagy, Al-Qaqaa & Kim, 2013, Dellinger et al, 2013).
Capriotti & Frizzell (2016) explain that sepsis is often seen in those who have a weak immune system. These individuals are at an increased risk of developing sepsis from microorganisms that a healthy immune system would normally fight off (Capriotti et al. 2016). The elderly, infants, and immunosuppressed patients are the most at risk for developing the condition (Capriotti et al. 2016). Sepsis can be caused by any microbe, but is most often caused by bacteria (Capriotti et al. 2016). Since sepsis has such a broad reach and can develop as a secondary infection after an initial injury or illness, Capriotti & Frizzell (2016) further explain the di...
Sepsis is defined as a systemic inflammatory response caused by an infective process such as viral, bacterial or fungal (Holling, 2011). Assessment on a patient and starting treatment for sepsis is based on identifying several factors including the infective source, antibiotic administration and fluid replacement (Bailey, 2013). Because time is critical any delay in identifying patients with sepsis will have a negatively affect the patients’ outcome. Many studies have concluded every hour in delay of treatment mortality is increased by 7% (Bailey, 2013). Within this assignment I will briefly discuss the previous practice and the recent practice including the study based on sepsis. I will show what enabled practice to change and I will use the two comparisons of current practice and best practice.
Studies have shown pertactin, a 69kDa non fimbrial outer membrane protein, facilitates attachment of the bacteria to ciliated respiratory cells. Experiments conducted on humans to test the role of pertactin have shown no significant effect except with the results from Bassinet (4). Furthermore, filamentous haemagglutinin confers infection by attaching to the host cells in the lower respiratory tract. It is about 2nm wide, and 50n...
Bacteria are found nearly everywhere within the body and most types are harmless or even helpful to bodily function (Novitt-Moreno). While it is important to have these bacteria in the body, pathogenic invaders can cause serious illnesses. Pathogenic bacteria work by either actually attacking a part of the victim’s body or releasing toxic waste products into the body. Bacteria are single-celled and contain all of the cellular mechanisms needed to live, grow, and reproduce (Novitt-Moreno). That means, when treating a bacterial infection, it is critical to have a highly specific antibiotic that can destroy the unwanted
Ali H Al-Khafaji, MD, MPH, FACP, FCCP(2010) Multisystem Organ Failure of Sepsis Retrieved 02/10/2011, from http://emedicine.medscape.com