Concentrated poverty and the creation of the underclass is the accrual of many social determinants but none more prominent than racial segregation. Douglas Massey, one of the leading experts in residential segregation in the US outlines this phenomenon in his work “American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass”. Using regression analysis, he studied the effect of racial and economic segregation and found that in cities with no racial segregation that blacks and whites showed equal rates of poverty, but in racially segregated areas blacks were much more likely to be impoverished. The data reveals that racial segregation and income segregation within race contribute decisively to poverty concentration which caused the deterioration of neighborhoods and communities (Massey 1990). In sum, this effect of racial segregation exposes the whites and blacks to different socioeconomic places or environments and leave the economic base of the of the poor blacks vulnerable to any sort of economic downturn in its economic fortunes (Massey 1990). With segregation at the root of socioeconomic disparities, we can understand how it is also a sizeable determinant in health outcomes. It is known that poverty equates to lower health but we often fail to consider the principles of intersectionality when we consider the legacy of institutional racism (Robert et al., 2010). Ethnic minorities, predominantly African American communities, have been subjected to a disproportionate level of negative social determinants due to
Obtaining higher education is regarded as the ultimate symbol of status in the United States (US). Access to a college education in this country is seen as an expression of academic excellence and can provide access to unlimited possibilities. In the US, Ivy Leagues are considered the elite and represent the most powerful ideogram of educational opportunity. According to the National Center for Education Statistics [NCES] (2012), from 1999–2000 to 2009–10, the percentages of both master's and doctor's degrees earned by females increased from 1999–2000 to 2009–10 from 58 to 60 percent and from 45 to 52 percent. The NCES report (2012), found that in 2009-10, of the 10.3 percent Black students who earned Bachelor degrees; 65.9 percent were women. Of the 12.5% of Black students who earned Master’s degree in 2009-10, 71.1 percent were women; and of the 7.4 percent of Black students who earned doctoral level degrees (this includes most degrees previously regarded as first-professional, i.e. M.D., D.D.S., and law degrees), 65.2 percent were women (NCES, 2012)...
The independent variables for this study were student race and gender. It is important to note that due to limited numbers of non-black students, black students were coded = 1 and all others were coded =...
Solórzano, D., Ceja, M. & Yosso, T. (2001). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African American college students. The Journal of Negro Education, 69(1/2), 60 – 73.
Specifically, there are a set of “direct effects” established by psychologists Clark McKown and Michael J. Strambler that effect the overall academic success of racial groups. These direct effects are; the families, quality of schooling, and stereotype threat (279). Firstly, the families of whites and Asians tend to be more economically suited to be able to “support their children’s schooling than Hispanics and blacks (279).” This support extends to not only to services, such as tutoring, but also support and “engagement with teachers and administrators.” Both boost academic performance outcome and without that same level of support, leave many low-income Hispanic and African American students academically disadvantaged. Additionally, Hispanic and black students are far more likely to attend schools that are considered high-poverty (280). These schools tend to offer an overall lower quality education due to “less experienced teachers, larger classes, less parental outreach, [and] greater conflict with teachers (280).” Low quality education makes it hard to excel in the academic world. Another factor that can negatively affect academic success is stereotype threat. Stereotype threat is a phenomenon that suggests that, when students become aware of negative stereotypical traits towards their racial demographic they perpetuate those traits. For example, if a girl is aware that women are
The treatment of the African-Americans
The treatment if the African-Americans have, in my opinion, almost always been worse than e.g. the treatment of European people. Back in the 17th century, the white people travelled to Africa and took the Africans as slaves back to their country. In their country, they continued to treat them as slaves with, no respect, to do the hard work, i.e. picking cotton, harvesting tobacco, building railroads etc. You were basically judged based on your skin color, not by your character. Even though the slavery was set a long time ago, the segregation and discrimination has yet not completly ended.
In the book to kill a mockingbird and in the report of Emmett Louis Till we can see that both of the stories have to do with some kind of segregation and racism. In To kill a mockingbird the racism comes when Tom robinson is exused of rapeinga white female when it was almost the other way around, and in the report of Till the racism comes when Till is accused of flirting and touching the cashier which is a white female.
Discrimination is the practice of unfair treating a person or group of people differently from other people or groups people. Segregation is the splitting of two racial groups. This includes minorities, black people, women, transgender, low income people and immigrants.
The segregation continues to exist in the country, in one way or another, however being the education a major pillar for the development of society, I think the government should pay more attention to how segregation can affect the future of all of us, and what would be the cost of it. I feel that all the effort that has been done for decades has been crumbling slowly and racism and segregation are being reflected in violence.
Many reasons as to why racial tensions spread on college campuses is because students nowadays are lacking opportunities to talk about race in their classrooms. For many students of color, their college years may include experiences with racial alienation. Colleges provide open admissions to students with many different backgrounds, even if the location of many of these colleges are in a dominant white neighborhood. Which has made it easy to segregate students of color, but very difficult for them not only because of their background but it leads them into not integrating socially and academically on campus.