However, in practice, their students use "top-down" process to guess theme and then adopt "bottom-up" process to check their understanding. Therefore, English teachers should use both processes in listening activities to help their students can practice both of them: "bottom-up" and "top-down". Furthermore, the combination of "bottom-up" processing and "top-down" processing is also called "interactive" processing (Peterson, 2001). In the classrooms, all pre-listening activities are one of good methods to help students integrate "bottom-up" processing and "top-down" processing when listening. For example, before listening, teachers should provide a lesson on the specific topic to bring students' level of content schema which help students can better comprehend the target text.
Assessment: Student Prompts/Teacher Directions English language learners (ELL) preschool students and regular English speaking students fit into Krashen theory of second language acquisition in several ways. First it focuses on essential interaction rather than being educated through rules and error revision to inherited language. Second, the teacher must establish information that is understandable to preschool ELL students using effective strategies and methods. Third, ELL preschool students must be comfortable and motivated for language acquisition to occur. This is when ELL preschool students’ are aware of the efforts that are ordinarily on the subject material of what is being discussed and the medium (“Why Learn a Second Language,” n.d.).
Even though massive input will be provided for four days lesson, which are Esperanto, The early history of the English language, Middle and modern English and Examining sources of English vocabulary, all lessons are logically connected each other, so students wouldn't get lost but would remain comprehensible. Furthermore, students could build up their competence gradually by comprehending input in addition to their performance throughout practice of the input in given activities. In order to make input more comprehensible, visual aids, caretaker speech, questioning and answering, summarizing were mainly used as a teacher's technique in the lesson. Showing the students a picture about the origins ... ... middle of paper ... ... need to do to solve the problems. After talking each other about the given topics, the teacher made them write at least two sentences using passive form and comparison as much as possible to give them a chance to consolidate their knowledge gained from the first stage of activities, talking each other about the given topics.
Also, teachers need to establish predictable classroom routines and procedures. Students can put their focus on content and activities when they know what to expect and are familiar with classroom routines. Teachers model routines and procedures by creating opening and ending procedures, procedures for distributing materials, positing agendas and schedules. It is important to keep in mind that ELs bring creative, capable minds which can process higher-order thinking and learning although those minds need strategic support, explicit instruction, and positive reinforcement to further promote learning. In the ELL classroom, several effective methods will promote and foster English acquisition, include modeling, rate of speech and wait time, use of nonlinguistic cues, giving instructions, and encouraging development of L1.
Krashen has five hypotheses for the acquisition of a second language. These hypotheses are: “acquisition learning, comprehensible input, monitor, affective filter, and natural order” (Krashen, 1981). Comprehensible input uses appropriate speech and clear explanation of tasks students need to accomplish during the school day. Students must be able to understand what is expected of them before they are able to complete the lesson or task. Comprehensible input will “be made meaningful when the speaker uses visual supports, nonverbal gestures, paraverbal support (whispers, sighs), graphic organizers, and realia (real objects that students can see) that focus learners on the concrete here and now” (Faltis, 2008).
The sentence level refers to the complexity of the student’s sentences from simple declaratives to complex and compound sentence structures. The discourse level refers to the linguist complexity, or organization of the piece. These levels are updated throughout the year and shared with the classroom teacher in addition; I plan lessons with these levels in mind. For example, one of my students is a level two in receptive language in a class studying family traditions. In order to be successful, I implemented supports so his background knowledge was applied to the content area and more specifically to academic language.
In order to do that, teacher should concern on many aspects. Besides of the methods or techniques which are used, the use of language by teacher famously called by “teacher talk” (TT) is the important factor which can support the learning process in a class. On the other sentence, we can say that the implementation of method, technique and TT which are suitable for students in a class can facilitate the learning process optimally, improve student’s knowledge and improve their language competence. Specifically, TT is used in creating a meaningful interaction in the class. By using TT as a learning resource, teacher hopes the student can notice the target language input given, negotiate the meaning, and practice the language by responding the teacher’s instructions.
CUP allows the student to transfer what they already know in their native language to the concepts presented in English therefore, allowing the student to understand the input of another language while still using their native language. Educators can assist an English Language Learner by using the Quadrant model devised by Cummins’ concerning the task difficulties according to context usage. The four sections are based on context reduction or context embedded combined with demanding or undemanding cognition. The student would benefit with context-embedded assignments that include visuals or oral clues more than just a context-reduced assignment where the student would just listen to a lecture without visual clues. The purpose of the Quadrant model is for teachers to commence assignments that are less demanding so that the student can build the confidence necessary to continue with assignments that are more demanding in the
Intelligence has been separated into different parts; “linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal behaviors” (Hardman, 2011). Knowing this as an educator a lesson plan should incorporate auditory, visual, and kinesthetic learners, thus covering all areas. This lesson plan did include differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction focuses more on the students and how to teach them. The school must make sure “that teachers focus on process and procedures that ensure effective learning” (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006, p iv) for numerous students in the class.
The educator is also recommended to provide wide range of experiences to develop student concept of learning. The teacher needs to allocate student into various division according to the educational progress in terms of every individual’s earlier course of development. The classroom environment should be supportive enough to embolden student to explore them through unplanned interaction (Slavin 2009). On the other hand, the main educational implications of the Vygotsky theory are scaffolding and co-operative learning. Vygotsky’s theories are more focusing on indirect instructions and child’s independent learning.