Chandler Smith Coach McDaniel US History 5 May 2014 Technology and Industrial Growth: Second Industrial Revolution With the conclusion of the Civil War, the United States turned their focus on rebuilding railroad and telegraph networks in the South, completing those of the North, and expanding those of the West. Once the depression of the 1870s had completely diminished, the stage was set for the Second Industrial Revolution. Also known as the Technological Revolution, this was a phase of the larger Industrial Revolution that lasted from around the middle of the 1800s into the early 20th century. Most tend to believe it began around the time of the introduction of Bessemer steel in the 1860s and concluded around the arrival of the production line, mass production, and factory electrification. The Second Industrial Revolution was characterized by a few different things, including: the large scale iron and steel production, construction of railroads, increase in use of manufacturing machinery, improved use of steam power, and by electrical communications. Known as the “King of Steel”, Andrew Carnegie was the benevolent employer and is considered one the most influential people of the second industrial revolution. There has been great debate about his true character. Some consider him a tyrant; one who was only concerned about his advancement of ideas. On the other hand, another group sees him as a generous educator. There is evidence that points to both sides; however, the best way to see him is as a combination of both. Nevertheless, there is no debate on his impact in the industry. Carnegie is a great example of someone who worked his way up from the bottom, after immigrating to the land of opportunity. After being born in Dunfer... ... middle of paper ... ...people acquired more benefits, and their lives improved substantially. People were now able to spend more time with their loved ones and less time doing monotonous work. These are just a few of the several positive things that came out of the Technological Revolution. As always, the sacrifices and struggles of people led to something far better than they ever thought possible before. So many of the great ideas and inventions of the Technological Revolution are still apart of our lives today. Most of the things we are accustomed to are credited to this time period. Only a few major innovations occurred in the post-war era, such as: computers, semiconductors, the Internet, and jet engines. Even these ideas have been impacted by the thoughts of the Second Industrial Revolution. The world would not be nearly as advanced if it was not for the people in this time period.
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In Harold C. Livesay’s Andrew Carnegie and the rise of Big Business, Andrew Carnegie’s struggles and desires throughout his life are formed into different challenges of being the influential leader of the United States of America. The book also covers the belief of the American Dream in that people can climb up the ladder of society by hard work and the dream of becoming an influential citizen, just as Carnegie did.
While Andrew Carnegie didn’t invent steel, he was able to explore steel production while making it more efficient. Through his exploration, he encountered setbacks that ultimately helped shape labor laws and eventually exchanged his company for a life of philanthropy which still has a lasting effect today. Carnegie managed to come from humble beginnings, as he immigrated to America from Dunfermline, Scotland at age thirteen (Carnegie 27). Carnegie shifted his economic status and was able to become the richest man in the world. He was unable to achieve his great fortune and social prominence without obstacles, but he still managed to change the United States for the better through his philanthropy and his sponsorship of architectural projects.
The Civil War left enormous devastation in the countryside and huge losses in the human life. At the same time, it provided the stimulus to the second industrial revolution. The first Industrial Revolution brought on many changes in people 's life. Before the year of 1760 majority of the population lived in rural areas of the country and worked plowing fields, the revolution changed all that and brought many to the cities to work in manufacturing. The Civil War in America put a halt to it and slowed the progression of industrialization.
The Second Industrial Revolution brought unity and prosperity to the once uneconomical Europe. Products such as railroads, coal, iron, and textiles, as well as the discovery of electricity, and use of chemicals, petroleum, and steel, are all contributes to what is referred to as the Second Industrial Revolution. These products brought improvement and advancement to all social classes.
Carnegie’s father was able to gain employment for himself and Andrew at a cotton factory, Carnegie’s wage was a meager $1.20 a week at this time.(Andrew Wikipedia) While at the cotton factory Carnegie was able to move into better paying positions although the advancements he earned had drawbacks. In one position he controlled a boiler he was always worried might burst, another oiling spools, which often made him sick and both very trying for him at such a young age. He states in his autobiography, “at this date I was not beyond asking myself what Wallace would have done and what a Scotsman ought to do. Of one thing I was sure, he ought never to give up.” ( Carnegie Auto) His perseverance was one of his positive attributes that helped him succeed. Three years after arriving in America, Carnegie gained employment from the Ohio Telegraph Company with a wage more than double that at the cotton factory. At $2.50 a week Carnegies was raking in the big bucks at his new job and he was excited to learn more about the industry. While employed with the telegraph company Carnegie became one of only a few people in the country who could decipher the message of the telegraph strictly by sound.(Andrew Wikipedia) His capacity to learn quickly and the energy he was willing to put into any job he had defiantly paved the road to his wealth.
After the Civil War the United States saw its Second Industrial Revolution. This revolution would bring great wealth to some and prosperity to the nation. These times re-shaped the American economy from an agricultural to industry. It took several key thing to fall into place for this to happen, new technologies, the railroad system and the creation of the working class. The Revolution was mainly took place in the northern states but southern states still saw limited success in certain areas. The transformation of the north and south, the differences in industry, social and economic consequences, and immigration all played major factors in shaping the United States into what it has become today.
“You cannot push anyone up a ladder unless he be willing to climb a little himself.” This was Andrew Carnegie’s theory that gave him his rise to power in the late 1800’s as well as his immense wealth. Although a native of Scotland, Carnegie moved to America at age 12 on borrowed money with his mother, father, and younger brother. Throughout his life, he constantly worked hard to provide for his impoverished family, saving money little by little to pay back the money they owed for their voyage to America. At first, Carnegie had a difficult time making enough money, but slowly sought out more and more opportunities for advancement in his career in America. As he moved from squalid basement work spaces to well-furnished offices, Carnegie discovered
The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, transport, and technology had a profound effect in North America. The industrial revolution marked a major turning point in history because it changed every aspect of life in America and the country as a whole. People started replacing ploughs and other tools for machines that could do twice the work. While others moved to large cities and started working in factories and other businesses. Huge industries such as the textile, steel, and coal industry came out and had a profound effect on the industrial revolution but, they would not have been extremely successful if it was not for railroads. The railroads played a vital role in the development and success of other industries. The railroads triggered the biggest leap in transportation in history. Through technological and entrepreneurial innovations and the creation of steam-powered locomotives, the development of trains as public carriers of passengers and freight, brought forth the railroad. The railroad industry changed the nature of production because it became an important energy source that replaced human and animal power. Due to the important role of the railroads, workers became more productive, items were being shipped more quickly, and resources were becoming available to everyone including the working and middle class and not only the wealthy. The railroads became to be known as one of the biggest leaps of transportation in history. This is because it set up the next fifty years of America’s prosperity. The railroads became extremely popular and useful during the 1800’s to millions of people and other large companies. Although there were many indu...
From the late 17th century to the early 19th century, industrialization was occurring in the United States and around Europe. The abundance of raw materials and the ambition of business men caused the industrialization before and after the Civil War. The First Industrial Revolution and Second Industrial Revolution, known as the Technological Revolution, caused the United States to thrive throughout those years because of population increase and all the new products or ideas there was. In the 1900s, the United States became the leading industrial power in the world because of both revolutions; the first revolution led into the second revolution because of the technology and economic changes occurring. The First Industrial Revolution changed agriculture customs and the Second Industrial Revolution caused changes in production techniques, but both helped the United States industrialize and become the most successful country in the world.
Most of the scientific developments that were made during the period of the industrial revolution serve as the basis to numerous modern inventions, for example, the internal combustion engine, the Internet, modern factories, to name a few. The desire for inventions during this period covered a wide range of people: artisans, farmers, university professors. Creators of new equipment were often weavers, spinners, mechanics, metallurgists. This was the era of engineers and inventors, who often did not have any special education. The industrial revolution had a huge impact on today's world. Moreover, this revolution helped to increase average wages in many cities in the period from the 18th and 19th centuries. The invention of the telegraph provided people with a new way of communicating around the world. People migrated to the industrial cities on the steam trains and they got beneficial job opportunities due to the establishment of new massive factories. There is no secret that the industrial revolution was truly revolutionary not only for the economic progress of the country and lifestyle and even worldview of people has changed forever as the society became more industrially advanced. The industrial revolution changed the way people worked and what they worked for. All in all, scientific developments during the industrial revolution in England were a sure step towards the following progress, new lifestyle and worldview of British society and humankind in
The Second Industrial Revolution improved many things, for example technology, transportation, and communication. Railroads were expanded, steel was made, and there were advances in transportation and communication. The boom which occurred in the oil industry became known as the Second Industrial Revolution. The Second Industrial Revolution was also known as the Technological Revolution. It occurred during the 19th century through World War I. Even though the advances in transportation and communication during the Second Industrial Revolution improved many American lives, there were other productions and inventions that ruined the rest of the American lives.
Andrew Carnegie created the American steel industry and has contributed more than anyone else to thrust America into the modern age through his visionary leadership (Solyak, 2014). Carnegie had his early start working for the rail road industry based out of New York. According to Solyak (2014), “Carnegie stunned his bosses by the many risks, daring ambition and rule breaking, bust always taking responsibility and ...
The Industrial Revolution is absolutely one of the many meaningful events in human history, which continues to impact our day-to-day lives. This was the switch to new mechanized means that started in the 18th century. As a manner of social change, the Revolution encouraged enormous economic growth, development, reformed gender roles, overcame old-fashioned family arrangements, and established the way for the development of the modern nation-state and global economy. The industrial revolution resulted in a great change in history; almost every aspect of everyday life was influenced in some way.
Thru-out the last century, technical innovations have enabled people to live better and more productive lives. Humans have evolved thru time, and as we have evolved, so must or technology. Things would be quite difficult in 2012 if we were still relying on the technology from 1812. Innovation is part of the human spirit but is often oppressed due to the political situations one may be under. Edward Gibbon (n.d.), an English historian of Rome said it best with one of his famous quotes;
The industrial revolution has been a part of the rapid progress of the society that affects living situation, productivity and technology. The first industrial revolution involved the introduction of water and steam power to mechanize production. The second industrial revolution harnessed electric power to facilitate mass production, leading to the development of the internal combustion engine such as the aeroplane and moving pictures. The third industrial revolution, in the 1960s, used electronics and information technology to automate the same production, giving rise to digital technologies such as computers and internet. As of now, the fourth industrial revolution have started to rise.