The expansion and endorsement of intellectualism by the many important forward thinking scientists created a desire for social revolution, which, in turn, created an atmosphere conducive to further intellectual study. The Scientific Revolution was, in essence, both a social and intellectual revolution. During the Scientific Revolution, scientists such as Nicolaus Copernicus, Galileo Galilei, Francis Bacon, Rene Descartes, and Christiaan Huygens wrestled with questions concerning God, human intellectualism, and their scientific views of the universe, its purpose, and how it functions. Ultimately, the implications of these new scientific discoveries began to change the way people thought and behaved. People began to question the widely accepted and Roman Catholic Church endorsed Aristotelian views of the universe. This led to the questioning of the traditional views of the state and societal structure. The geocentric Ptolemaic model was no longer blindly accepted. The earth was now no longer easily explainable or thought to be the center of the universe. Beliefs that were hundreds of years old were now proven to be false.
In addition to this, the authority of the Roman Catholic Church, which had always held that the motion of the universe was controlled by God, was now questioned by many. In response, this set the Roman Catholic Church as a natural opponent of the Scientific Revolution. This was because the new information contradicted the Church’s world view not because of opposition to new ideas or scientific exploration itself. Fortunately, the Scientific Revolution happened moderately over approximately a one hundred and fifty year period so society and the Church had time to adjust to the revolutionary new thoughts.
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...ul attitudes regarding science exploration and religion or because they came later in the Revolution and the Church and society was more prepared to receive their messages. Religion was based on personal faith and guidance by the Church and prior to the Scientific Revolution, the Church had even extended their power into the world of science. Science and scientists proved to have the final say, not so much as to discredit the Roman Catholic Church but to dictate a place for science in the world. In the end, science and religion remained independent from each other and free of outside control, which allowed each person to define the universe and its workings for themselves. Through the many years of the Scientific Revolution, people were inspired to pursue knowledge for themselves and make social changes, thus fulfilling both social and intellectual revolutions.
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During the Scientific Revolution, the struggle between faith and reason was exhibited through Galileo and his discoveries. The Catholic Church during the time period of the Scientific Revolution did not approve of any outside scientists who came up with new theories and observations. The Church believed that all information about how the world worked was in the bible and that was the only right source. In an excerpt from “What is Scientific Authority?” written by Galileo in 1615, it states, “Showing a greater fondness for their [Catholic Church’s] own opinions than for truth, they sought to deny & disprove the new things which, if they had cared to look for themselves, their own senses would have demonstrated to them…” Galileo Galilei himself knew that the Church was not willing to approve of new ideas from other scientists, but only from the teachings in the Bible. Later on in the excerpt, Galileo writes, “They [Catholic Church] hurled various charges &…made the grave mistake of sprinkling these with passages taken from places in the Bible which they had failed to understand properl...
The Scientific Revolution, during the 16th and 18th centuries, was a time of conflict. It was not a hand-to-hand martial conflict. It was a conflict of advancement, similar to the Cold War between the United States and the former Soviet Union. However, it was between the thinkers of the Scientific Revolution, such as Nicolaus Copernicus and Galileo Galilei, and the Roman Catholic Church. At the time, the Catholic Church was the most powerful religious body in Europe. It controlled everything from education to faith to finances. Thinkers like Galileo took the risk and went against the church. This is shown through the documents below. Those documents tell the story of Galileo and how he was forced to revoke his support of heliocentrism by the church. The documents below also show the struggle between faith and reason that existed during this era of advancement by hindering the flourishment of the sciences by stating that it did not agree with the Bible and naming these early scientists as heretics.
A key parallel between the scientific revolution and the enlightenment was the decreasing belief in authority. The scientific revolution lead to great advances in astronomy, mathematics, geography, botany and medicine (7). A key discovery was that of Copernicus’ heliocentric theory (2). The heliocentric theory proposed that the sun was at the centre of the universe as opposed to the earth which was the common belief held strongly at the time. Copernicus discovered that the sun was at the centre of the universe, and that the moon orbited the earth while the earth orbited the sun. This theory raised profound qu...
The scientific revolution can be considered one of the biggest turning points in European history. Because of new scientific ideas and theories, a new dawn of thinking and questioning of natural elements had evolved. Scientific revolution thinkers such as Newton, Galileo, and Copernicus all saw nature as unknowable and wanted to separate myths from reality. During the scientific revolution during mid 1500-late 1600s, key figures such as Isaac Newton and Nicolaus Copernicus greatly impacted Europe in terms of astronomical discoveries, scientific methods, and the questioning of God to challenge the church’s teachings.
Nicholas Copernicus was the first to question the universal truths and teachings of the church. He devised a theory that the earth along with the other planets revolved around the sun. This theory disagreed with Aristotle and the old teachings that the universe revolved around the earth, and that man was the center of the universe.
The Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment period were both a time of immense growth in scientific discovery and an increase in the secular view of the world. The Scientific Revolution would include the use of direct observation and experimentation, dependence on mathematical confirmation, and inventions to test new scientific discoveries (Kwak). The new discoveries of the Scientific Revolution led the growing number of literate middle class individuals in the Enlightenment period. This growth of enlightened individuals led to more intellectual and cultural attitudes that shaped modern history throughout the world (Fiero, 134). This paper will analyze the impact of the
Directions: Read the essay entitled The Scientific Revolution: The Disenchanting of the Universe and respond to each of the following questions as thoroughly as possible. Your answers can be either hand-written (in ink) or word-processed. However, you must paraphrase—answer in your own words. If you quote directly from the essay, you should then interpret the quote.
The Scientific revolution in the 16th and 17th centuries changed the way that people views the world. Scientific philosophers such as Galileo and Descartes threw out the old teachings of the church and challenged them with new ways of thinking. These men sought to prove that rational thought could prove the existence of God. They also challenged that it was an understanding of a series of rational thoughts, not faith, would bring understanding of how the world worked. Traditional ways of thinking were ultimately challenged by logical and sensible rationale.
One of the most important developments in the western intellectual tradition was the Scientific Revolution. The Scientific Revolution was nothing less than a revolution in the way the individual perceives the world. As such, this revolution was primarily an epistemological revolution -- it changed man's thought process. It was an intellectual revolution -- a revolution in human knowledge. We have read some revolutionary pieces of literature from this period of time that were extremely important for the evolution of science and human thought and what they had in common. But nobody influenced this huge movement more than Sir Francis Bacon, through his works and his legacy. Bacon’s political science appears to separate religion and science. However, Bacon most likely believed that the advancement of humankind and the goal of achieving knowledge involves a complementary relationship between science and religion.
The modern science view as well as the Scientific Revolution can be argued that it began with Copernicus’ heliocentric theory; his staunch questioning of the prior geocentric worldview led to the proposal of a new idea that the Earth is not in fact the center of the solar system, but simply revolving around the Sun. Although this is accepted as common sense today, the period in which Copernicus proposed this idea was ground-breaking, controversial, and frankly, world-changing. The Church had an immense amount of power, and was a force to be reckoned with; in the beginning of the Scientific Revolution, new scientific proposals and ideas were discouraged in many cases by the Church. A quote from Galileo’s Children does an excellent job summing up the conflict: “The struggle of Galileo against Church dogma concerning the nature of the cosmos epitomized the great, inevitable and continuing clash between religion and reason.” If evidence goes against scripture, the scientist is considered a heretic and is, like in Galileo’s case, forbidden to discuss the ideas any further. Galileo Galilei, who proposed solid evidence and theory supporting the heliocentric model, was forced to go back on his beliefs in front of several high officials, and distance himself from the Copernican model. This, luckily, allowed him to not be killed as a heretic, which was the next level of punishment for the crimes he was charged with, had he not went back on his beliefs. Incredible support was given through the young developing academies with a sense of community for scientists and academics; “Renaissance science academies represent a late manifestation of the humanist academy movement.” Since the Church was grounded traditionally evidence that went agains...
At the time just prior to the revolution, ideas and thoughts had been based strictly around faith and not scientific reasoning. The founders of the revolution took a leap of faith into an unknown realm of science and experimentation. Four of the many brilliant founders of the Scientific Revolution; Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler and Brahe, used previous scientific principles and their own genius to make advances in science that are still being used today. Scientific pamphlets, the telescope, observations of the universe and the creation of ...
In conclusion, the scientific revolution brought dramatic change in the way people lived their lives, and it certainly influenced eighteenth century free-thinking. The scientific method was comprehensively utilized during the eighteenth century to study human behavior and societies. It enabled scientist and scholars alike to exercise their freedom of rationality so they could come to their own conclusions about religion and humanity as a whole. They could finally do so without having to defer to the dictates of established authorities.
Before this revolution, the Roman Catholic church held a monopoly on most scientific research. The majority of scientists were monks or members of universities where a study of the natural world was viewed through the lens of Scripture. Even Copernicus 's studies of the rotation of the planets and his original heliocentric model of the universe were created to help the papacy build a better calender so that it could properly celebrate Easter. However, during and after the Scientific Revolution, philosophers and scientists began moving toward a belief that the spiritual world was outside of the physical world, and that religious beliefs should be considered separate from scientific study. This turn in thinking is seem in Galileo 's attempt to reinterpret the Bible to fit the new research being done. Despite the Church 's attempts to crack down on theories that contradicted its own beliefs, these new ideas permeated the society. After the Revolution, society had mostly turned to a belief that the Church and science were separate entities, and that religion was not over study of the natural
...pted by people of the Late Middle Ages. More importantly, it brought out the idea that the Bible could not be interpreted for science, instead, people were to experiment or observe for themselves. The strongly supported heliocentric theory no refuted the favorable idea of humanity being in the center. The Scientific Revolution revealed the fact that the sun was in the universe, at the same time, it encouraged people to become innovators, thinkers, and experimenters instead of being dependent on theology. The Scientific Revolution was a big step forward for humanity. It showed that everyone was capable of thinking logically. In our society today, people can freely debate, read, and discover for themselves. Without the Scientific Revolution, the modernization of science may have been delayed, and our present ideas of the universe and humanity may have been different.