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Schizophrenia: Types, Symptoms, Medications, Treatment

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HISTORY

EPIDEMIOLOGY

CLINICAL FEATURES

COURSE

PROGNOSIS

DIAGNOSTIC TYPES

ETIOLOGY

NEUROPATHOLOGICAL STUDIES

GENETICS

DOPAMINE HYPOTHESIS

OTHER NEUROTRANSM1TTER SYSTEMS

TREATMENT

Schizophrenia is sometimes considered the most devastating of the mental illnesses because its onset is early in a patient’s life, and its symptoms can be destructive to the patient and to the patient’s family and friends. Although schizophrenia is usually discussed as if it were a single disease, this diagnostic category can include a variety of disorders that present with somewhat similar behavioral symptoms. Schizophrenia probably comprises a group of disorders with heterogeneous causes and definitely includes patients whose clinical presentations, treatment responses , and courses of illness were varied.

HISTORY: Emil Kraepelin, a noted German psychiatrist, observed that among hospitalized psychotic patients there were two types of clinical course. The first seemed to be characterized by exacerbation’s and remissions in mood and cognitive functioning which he called "manic depression", and a second type characterized by a chronic psychotic course with its onset in youth and deteriorating social functioning which he called "dementia praecox." In 1911 Eugene Bleuler, a Swiss psychiatrist, coined the term "schizophrenia" for dementia praecox ,as a way of describing the disease as a splitting of psychological functioning.

EPIDEMIOLOGY: The prevalence of schizophrenia in the general population is about 1% for lifetime risk, about an 0.5 in 1000 incidence of recorded or treated cases per year in the United States. The schizophrenic syndrome has a similar world-wide incidence, the only cultural differences being that the prognosis for ...

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