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Schizophrenia Essay

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Schizophrenia is a long-term mental health condition, that includes distorted thoughts and hallucinations, can also cause the patient to feel frightened and paranoid. According to the NHS one in a 100 people Schizophrenia affects men and women equally and is often experienced by 1 in 100 people in their lifetime (Cox, 2001) with many living a normal life. It is usually diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 35 (Nhs.uk, 2014)

Schizophrenia is a thought process disorder characterised by disturbance to one’s perception sentiments and beliefs. Clinical characteristics are classified and divided into positive and negative symptoms. Positive symptoms individuals experience or sense something happening to them for example hallucinations (unreal perceptions), delusions (bizarre beliefs) or jumbled speech. Whereas with negative symptoms individuals do not show normal behaviour, diminution or loss of normal function, for example affective flattening, they could be withdrawn, alogia (poverty of speech) avolition lack of goal directed behaviour (Cardwell and Flanagan, 2012).

Diagnosis needs to be at least a month or two period of two or more positive symptoms (Cardwell and Flanagan, 2012).

However, evolutionary theory of schizophrenia could be a biological disorder deriving from distant ancestral human (Cardwell and Flanagan, 2012). In evolutionary psychology, one key concept has been the ‘the ‘environment of evolutionary adaptedness’ (EEA). Humans adapted to African savannah two to three million years ago; they would evolve, developing new traits in order to help them survive. They lived in tribes as hunters and gatherers. Food would sometimes be scarce and members would risk starvation.

Following this, a person developing schizop...

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...is that there are problems with cause and effect. Cognitive approaches do not explain the causes of cognitive shortfalls – where they originate from to start with. Another weakness is that it is reductionist, because t approach does not consider other factors such as genes. This suggests that the cognitive approach is oversimplistic when consider the explanation of schizophrenia.

Another strength is applicability because doctors use the cognitive approach and also this has generated further researches to improve therapy for example finding out the goal-directed navigation in a naturalistic virtual environment if it is a functionally meaningful measure of cognitive functioning in schizophrenia (Ronson, 2013).
A final strength is that it is not ethnocentric as the results could be biased to a particular group of people and might work differently in another culture.
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