When in orbit the shuttle is positioned so that it is moving nose-first and the top of the shuttle is pointing towards the earth. The shuttle is positioned "bottom up" so that the black bottom will radiate the heat from the sun more effeciently. Step one for the shuttle is to turn around so that it is moving stern-first and then it fires it's engines in order to slow the shuttle so that it will drop out of orbit. Next the shuttle flips over so that it is right-side-up when it enters the atmosphere. Between step three and four the shuttle burns any excess fuel that it may still have so that there is less of a danger of explosion when the fuel tanks get hot durring re-entry.
The path it took was nicknamed “VEEGA: Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist. Galileo would slingshot once by Venus, and twice from Earth, gathering the momentum to r... ... middle of paper ... ...red future plans to orbit it and possible send in a lander. The radiation Jupiter produces made it hard for Galileo to come close to the inner moon and scientist thought it would be best to save that for last. The successful flybys led to the discovery of erupting fountains of lava on Io. The next mission was titled Galileo Millennium Mission which lasted till 2001.
The Martian – Scientific Successes and Failures The Martian starring Matt Damon depicts the horrific situation in which an astronaut is abandoned on the surface of Mars after an impossible storm sent his crew fleeing. While an enthralling story, there are moments when scientific accuracy is thrown out the window. The enormous storm which forced the crew to abandon their mission and the reduced gravity on Mars, were not depicted accurately in The Martian. Other aspects of the move like the necessity, use and number of solar panels used on the surface of Mars appear to be more accurate. The gravity on Mars is equivalent to one third the gravity on Earth (5).
Kennedy also took part in seeing two early space launches that put Alan Shepard and John Glenn in earth orbit. Excitedly Kennedy told people, "... ... middle of paper ... ... the moon. " Armstrong reported, " The view of the moon that we've be having recently is really spectacular." (Smith 15). The three astronauts went to sleep knowing that their goal was just below them.
Scientist Michael Long suggests a troubling scenario.3 He says, "Imagine a radiation-sick, sleep-deprived astronaut stepping onto Mars. Challenged by a different gravity and with his bones, muscles, and immune system weakened by the long trip; he falls and breaks his leg. How would NASA respond?" Today NASA is concentrating on known environmental problems in space and experimenting to find methods to solve them. These issues range from physical problems of weightlessness and radiation, to psychological problems of isolation, sleep deprivation, disorientation, depression, and time changes.4 These problems are serious and affect many parts of the human body.
While she was in Earth's orbit repairing features on the International Space Station, her unattached from space suit & drifted away into space. The uncontrolled space junk is becoming a greater problem than before. As well as the continuous growth of space junk in Earth's orbit, NASA scientists are in fear of the occurrence of catastrophic collisions. In order to avoid being hit by space debris, scientist developed the collision avoidance technique. They are also looking for ways to remove the debris Earth's orbit.
In the late 1960’s and 1970’s NASA was still running off of their glory from winning the space race against the Soviet Union by putting a man on the Moon. A manned mission to Mars or a journey to the many Moons of Saturn seemed right around the corner. Project Orion, for example, was a space project that had planned for a nuclear bomb powered rocket to take men and supplies to the far away Saturn Moon of Orion. “It would have been enormously risky,” says Freeman Dyson (Folger), who was one of the astronauts which volunteered to go on the Project Orion rocket. Any person in the capsule would be subject to large amounts of radiation.
At 9 a.m. on February 1st, 2003, disaster struck the space shuttle program: Columbia had disintegrated upon re-entry into Earth’s atmosphere just 16 minutes before it was supposed to land at Kennedy Space Center (National Geographic News par 2-3). The shuttle had been damaged by little more than foam from the external tank but it was enough to make it susceptible to the high temperatures it faced as it descended through the atmosphere. The idea that a space shuttle can endure damage that is unforeseen or unavoidable is well within reason. However, in retrospect it was found that foam strikes were present on most shuttle missions and NASA had a history of diminishing their recognized danger in favor of increasing the chances of meeting mission deadlines. Columbia and its crew of seven astronauts were doomed from launch due to a combination of the damage it sustained and the unwillingness of program managers to allow anyone to investigate it further during the mission.
Space junk Space junks are millions of man-made debris that floats around the earth, creating potential problems and dangers to operational aircrafts. The debris consist of tiny flecks of paint, defunct satellites blowing up in outer space, destroyed weather satellites, and the debris that came from the defunct Soviet satellite when it struck the American Iridium satellite over Northern Siberia. Mankind’s journey towards outer space which began with the launch of the Soviet satellite, Sputnik in 1957, had a series of launches that swamped outer space with so much debris of inert material. Launch vehicles made over the years left massive flecks of debris that left around half a million of junk in outer space measuring from one to ten centimetres. These junks may seem insignificant in size but are dangerous in outer space.
Another limitation during re-entry is heating. The fiery trail of a meteor streaking across the night sky is an extremely good example to show that re-entry can get hot! This intense heat is a result of friction between the speeding meteor and the air. How hot can something get during re-entry? The Space Shuttle in orbit has a mass of 100,000 kg (220,000 lb.