Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a burden to many countries worldwide as it is one of the leading cause of end-stage liver disease and mortality[1-2]. Approximately one-third of the world’s population has had a past HBV infection while 350 to 400 million people are chronically infected with HBV[1-3]. However, the Institute of Medicine Committee states that 65% of these chronically infected HBV patients are not aware of their infection as it shows no symptoms until it has reached advanced stages of liver disease. Since HBV can be asymptomatic at initial stages, screening and blood tests are carried out to initiate early treatment options for the patients. The current treatments available for HBV management is interferon alfa therapy, nucleoside and nucleosite analogue therapy.
And of the people that have been paralyzed only 5% to 10% will died from the respiratory system being paralyzed. Polio is transmitted from person to person through direct contact to the virus, and because the vast majority of people affected by polio are in developing countries, people don’t wash their hands after handling the disease which provides it another way of transmitting it. And because the disease lives in the intestine for the majority of its life, the only way to directly contact the virus is through stool samples. Doctors can tell that the disease affecting a person is polio through the symptoms and a stool sample. (Who, 2014).
‘It is known to be a cause of foodborne illness and an significant pathogen, causing infections that can be transmitted from animals to humans’ (Lawley, R, 2013). As we tested on the survival of salmonella within the stomach, the normal human stomach has a pH closer to 2 (National Science Foundation, 2013). The aim of this experiment was determine whether salmonella could survive within an acidic environment of high or low fat contents. The use of two controls and treatments was conducted. A control was used to show salmonella killed within the presence of the stomach acid, where as, the treatment, showed salmonella grew vigorously in high content fat such as full cream milk than low/no fat content conditions such as skim milk.
The Spanish flu had so many people to die from this disease it was referred back to “Black Death” in the middle ages. The virus spread quickly as troops aboard warships went to different parts of the Earth during WWI. In February 1957, a new flu virus came about in Asia officials predicted another pandemic. Health officials monitored flu outbreaks until a vaccine could be produced. Unfortunately the elderly immune system was too weak to fight off the flu about 69,800 people died from this majority were the elderly.
The Black Death Every year millions of people die. People die either from natural causes or from another source like murder. Cancer and AIDS are the number one diseases leading to death in the 21st century. (Jueneman 1) However, they have not always been the leading diseases. Around as early as 542 AD, a deadly disease broke out in Constaniople and quickly spread around the world within a few hundred years.
During the eighteenth century, smallpox was at its deadliest, killing approximately 400,000 people in Europe each year (Riedel 2005). For babies, the case-fatality rate was extremely high, especially in Berlin in the late 1800s, where it reached 98% (Riedel 2005). It is said that children were not counted as part of the family until they had survived the disease (Bardell 1977). The practice of inoculation, also refer... ... middle of paper ... ...is a disease that caused tremendous turmoil, especially during the eighteenth century, by causing the death of many who contracted it (Bardell 1977; Riedel 2005; Smith 2011). While the practice of smallpox inoculation was used to lower death rates, it was not until Edward Jenner created a vaccination for smallpox using cowpox material that there was a window of opportunity for an end to the disease.
Tuberculosis causes 2 million deaths a year. WHO predicts that between 2000 and 2020, nearly 1 billion people will become infected with the TB bacteria and 35 million people will die from the disease. II. Transmission and Infection Print section TB is transmitted from person to person, usually by inhaling bacteria-carrying air droplets. When a person sick with TB coughs, sneezes, or speaks, small particles that carry two to three bacteria surrounded by a layer of moisture are released in the air.
Maddy fought for her life and lived eleven days on lifesupport and then she died” (Thomas). Plagues have killed millions of people in the last few centuries alone. Will the Spread of bacteria be humans plague? Due to humanity’s overuse of antibiotics and natural evolution bacteria have become antibiotic resistant. This is causing incurable infections such as MRSA.
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Introduction Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been present in the human population for thousands of years; fragments of the spinal column from Egyptian mummies from 2400 BCE show definite pathological signs of tubercular decay. Called "consumption," tuberculosis was recognized as the leading cause of mortality by 1650. Using a new staining technique, Robert Koch identified the bacterium responsible for causing consumption in 1882. While scientists finally had a target for fighting the disease, they did not have the means to treat patients; the spread of infection was controlled only by attempting to isolate patients. At the turn of the twentieth century, more than 80% of the population in the United States was infected before age 20, and tuberculosis was still the leading cause of death.
Description Salmonella is an intestinal infection caused by Salmonella enterica bacteria. You can become infected by eating foods contaminated with Salmonella or by touching infected pets. In rarer cases, Salmonella infection can also be carried in medical products that were derived from contaminated animals. Before a Salmonella infection can begin, somewhere between 100,000 and 100,000,000 Salmonella enterica bacteria must actually be swallowed. Salmonella bacteria invade the intestinal wall, where they trigger inflammation.