With political capitalism rising to fame, Progressive politics experienced new themes and areas. The inevitability of federal regulation policies, reformation of social welfare, conservation, and various innovations with banking led to one conservative effort: the preservation of existing powers and economic/social relations. The political leaders of this ear were conservative in that they all believed in the fundamentals of basic capitalism. The various forms of anti-trust legislation presented by each president made the nation one step closer to providing a stable, predictable, and secure, therefore, conservative capitalist society. Theodore Roosevelt’s statist tendencies brought new meaning to government regulation.
Classical liberal ideas often form the basis for opposition to the use of government to attain social objectives. They stress instead reliance on private initiatives or the free market to determine the best outcomes. Liberals believe in the government action the allows equal opportunities and equality for all. Liberals have a more fact-based, rather than faith-based, ideology. They are not so motivated by self-serving but actually negative emotions, such as prejudice, greed and fear, and thus can see the great advantages to a society of justice for all The basic duty of the government is to protect the common good and private rights of individuals.
John Locke was acknowledged for finding the traditions of liberalism. He argued that individuals have rights and that the government must not violate those rights. He opposed traditional conservatism. The ideas of liberalist government spread throughout the world. For the United States, it helped abolish slavery.
Jefferson proclaimed his “Republican Revolution” to help the average famer and reduce the Federal debt the United States had acquired due to war and to reduce the power of the Federal Government. Jefferson had based the ideals of the “Republican Revolution” on his strict interpretation of the Constitution and did not believe in loose interpretations, opposing Hamilton’s proposal of having a Federal Bank. Jefferson would largely focus on helping the average person as he would try to support the common man through his decisions. He would try to lower the Federalists control as well power and give equality. Jefferson would try to help the common man especially the yeoman farmer as well as reducing the debt the United States had.
Both these plans shared similarities in that they opposed big businesses as well as trying to salvage the nation from a crisis in result of the political corruption, however they also differed greatly. Roosevelt’s ideas of reform pertaining to welfare contradicted those of Wilson and his New Freedom plan. In the end, Wilson won the election, however many speculate not because of his plan, however because of the fact that the Republican party was split into two, the Republicans led by Taft and the Progressives, led by Roosevelt.
Property also represented a very strong idea in the minds of many liberals. Davies concludes, "nineteenth-century liberals also gave great weight to property, which they saw as the principal source of responsible judgement and solid citizenship." (A History of Europe, p.802) However, property soon became defined as a natural right. Davies expresses, "economic liberalism focused on the concept of free trade, and on the associated doctrine of laissez-faire, which opposed the habit of governments to regulate economic life through protectionist tariffs. It stressed the right of men of property to engage in commercial and industrial activities without undue restraint."
This is hinted by the key terms “welfare capitalism and state” are major characteristics of pro-modern liberalism, since they now have the right to produce and make a profit, but, also have a social safety net in case you fall into debt making it welfare capitalism while working with the population to produce. The author’s perspective of the source can also be agreed by VIP John Maynard Keynes, because he promoted Modern
Therefore modern liberals have a much more optimistic view of human beings compared to that of classical liberals. As I have stated above Lord Acton as a classical liberal believed humans to be egoistical, and as such thought that if beings got in to a position of power and authority then the government would be tyrannical. A tyrannical government is one that rules above the law, for example Saddam Hussein’s government in Iraq. Liberals thought that to prevent tyranny a sovereign state needs to be in place, which would limit the government’s power. Power would be limited by internal and external constraints, for example constitutionalism which would mean that the population would know the extent of the government’s power.
The Loyalty after the French and Indian War, was a belief that the British would bring peace and prosperity back to the colonies. Then there was the Idea of Republicanism, this really started to take hold around the end of the French and Indian war. That idea inherently was an idea of opposing hierarchical and authoritarian institutions, such as aristocracy and monarchy. The absence of English nobles such as barons, and bishops, in the colonies, also helped to bolster Republicanism. The theory of the English government being corrupt, was a heavy factor in the mind of the colonists.
While conservatives want to keep the constitution the way it is. Modern liberals support a large government that provides benefits to people who normally wouldn 't have; like health care and extra assistance. In addition, they tend to support most amendments like gun control, due to process of law or right to a fair trial. On the other hand, conservatives support a limited government that only provides necessary things like schools. Although, with alI the good things that liberalist defend for, I also think there should be a measure into how much of liberty a certain right should have.