Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers, 1998. Davis, Stephen and Peter Simon. Reggae Bloodlines. New York: DaCapo Press, 1992. Jackson, Irene.
They are spending a lot of time promoting the "Stop the violance" campain and others that promote education and drug awareness. The history of rap varies, but the most common beleif is that it comes from Africa. This can be proven by looking at the different techniqus used in making rap music and the techniques used in African music. Rap music consists of many sounds and techniques that come from different sources. As noted in Grolier Electronic Publishing, under the subject African musical styles, "One of the most common types of music-making is call-and-response singing, in which a chorus repeats a fixed refrain in alternation with a lead singer who has more freedom to improvise".
Steve Barrow and Peter Dalton. Reggae - The Rough Guide. London: Rough Guides, 1997. Chevannes, Barry. Rastafari - Roots and Ideology.
"Ecumenical America: global culture and the American Cosmos. "World Policy Journal. 11.2 (1994):103-117. Regis, Humphrey A. "The American Appropriation of Reggae.
“Won't you help to sing, these songs of freedom 'cause all I ever have, redemption songs” (Bob Marley, 1980) Marley was born into Jamaica’s poverty and it is where he developed a strong love of reggae and became a Rastafari. Reggae, evolved from another musical style called Ska in the late 1960’s, is considered the voice of the ‘oppressed’ peoples. Many reggae lyrics are politicalised and centre on themes of freedom and fighting for it. (Cooper, 2014) Rastafari is a theology based upon the writings of Marcus Garvey a Jamaican social activist. The movement’s global spread from Jamaica across the world has been strongly influenced by Bob Marley and closely associated with reggae.