Montesquieu’s emphasis on the separation of government into three divisions is an idea that Madison adapted in the Constitution. In the “republican” government, checks and balances are necessary to keep the government working for the people instead of the reverse. The wisest of men are to represent the people’s interests and understand these interests to be those of the community as a whole. Madison may have adopted the separation of powers idea from philosophers such as Montesquieu and Locke, but there are several more prerequisites required to compose a truly republican government. While the Anti-Federalists were not classical republicans either, they did make some valid arguments as to why the beliefs of the Federalists were not consistently republican.
The Federalists believed in a form of government that is not consistent with the textbook definition of "majority rules". They believed in a modified version of democracy- a pragmatic type of democracy. They believed in a democracy which sometimes neglects the majority vote in order to ensure the stability of American government. They believed in a democracy which does not blindly put all trust within its elected officials. They believed in a democracy which nurtures the free soul of the American public.
Bessette and Pitney, Jr. support the idea that “strong partisanship…can be healthy for deliberation and democracy” (296). In Federalist 51, Madison suggests that because of human nature’s shortcomings coupled with the opportunity of power through governance, “ambition must be made to counteract ambition” (331). The dysfunction of the American political system is not instituted by political partisanship, it cannot be blamed solely on media actions, and the system of government institutions and functions is not at fault: it is a problem of the political knowledge and character of the citizenry. Madison wrote that “knowledge will forever govern ignorance: and a people who mean to be their own governors, must arm themselves with the power which knowledge gives” (Barbour 179). The systematic dysfunction of American politics is underpinned by the weakening of political knowledge and involvement across the population.
Republicanism is different from other forms of democracy as it defines itself based on the fact people have fundamental rights that cannot be taken away by a majority of voters. The founding of republicanism in America seemed to be the true beginning of who we are and what we have become today. When settlers decided to come to America instead of staying in Britain it was based on the idea that America was a blank slate. They could make it whatever they wanted it to be. Base it on whatever beliefs and ideologies they chose.
Madison argues that a strong and large republic would best control the effects of factions, rather than a smaller republic. Madison also argues for representation in government rather than direct democracy. With delegates, the passions of the people would-be filtered, and only the ideas that are good for the majority of the people would prevail. Madison expands his argument in Federalist No.10 by having three separate branches of government, the judicial, legislative, and executive. Each branch would be independent and have equal power.
10). Madison believes that with democracies come factions, these “special interest groups” as we call them now and with these groups comes unequal balances that they would make in society. Although in Federalist No. 10, Madison mainly argues against having a full democratic government, I believe as we see later that Madison believes in our now present form of government, a two-party system. I believe his true core values were to have the government keep a fair and balanced setting with the whole spectrum of society.
Explain the impact of Locke & Rousseau on Thomas Jefferson. Give examples from the text. The idea of inalienable rights. This is the idea that there are certain rights that are absolutely fundamental and that no government or political body has the right to alter them. This is idea is articulated in one of the most oft-quoted passages of the Declaration of Independence: "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness".
That government must adhere to the will of the people. Anything that the tyrants do to free people of the world, ideas will carry on. Governments should have to justify their actions to the people; people should never justify their actions to the government. (Thomas Paine, 2010). English philosopher Tomas Hobbes in his book the Leviathan described an ideal situation in which the government should coexist with the people.
The core philosophy on republicans is based on limiting power of government intervention over the state, they feel the federal government shouldn't be involved in state affairs. However, be allowed to intervene only in critical matters. Republicans prefer a decentralized government, which mean the states govern the people and not the national government. Republicans feel that governmental power should not be centralized because the central government will be out of touch with the needs of local citizens they prefer the governmental power to be on local hands. Democratic philosophy prefers a centralized system of government, in which all powers are held by the Federal Government, with certain controls particularly reserved to the States.
The political views of the federalist and the republicans towards the government of the United States of America were different. The republicans stressed equality of rights among citizens allowing people to govern themselves. The federalists believed in a stronger government one in which was sovereign and had superior power over the local governments. The republicans view almost always proved to be a disaster but the republicans believed that if a republican government could succeed anywhere, it would be within the virtuous communities of the United States of America. The republicans felt that replacing a monarchy government with a republican government would give the people many more rights and freedoms.