He also argued that the advancement of art and science had not been beneficial to mankind. He proposed that the progress of knowledge had made governments more powerful, and crushed individual liberty. He concluded that material progress had actually undermined the possibility of sincere friendship, replacing it with jealousy, fear and suspicion. In his "Discourse on the Origin of Inequality" he elaborated on the process of how social institutions must have developed into the extreme unequal rights of aristocratic France where the nobility and the church lived in luxury while the poor peasants had to pay most of the taxes. And in his "Discourse on Political Economy" he suggested remedies for these injustices.
Whilst on the other hand Rawl’s theory of justice is derived from his interpretation of the social contract, where he defines the conception of justice as fairness. Rawls argues that justice consists of the basic principles of governance, where free and rational beings are individuals who should theoretical agree on some census of a perfect equality. His theory of justice is seen to revolve around two main principles, which he believes would create a just as well a moral society. These fundamental principles are to him a guarantee social order as well maintains social justice. The first principle is about ensuring that everyone individual is given the most basic resources to ensure the compatibility with others of the society.
The Declaration of Independence sets forth many moral laws for the government to follow. The first example can be found within the first few lines of the document. It states, “that all men are created equal.” This ensures that all individuals are endowed with equal unalienable rights to life, liberty, and property. The equality set by law, as stated, must secure those rights. The Founder’s saw equal rights and law the foundation to justice, and without it, a nation could fall to tyranny.
When this time comes, Rousseau contends, men must enter a social contract with one another. The social contract is imperative to Rousseau since he views it to be the best means of ensuring that alliances between men do not come at the expense of the freedom enjoyed in the state of nature. According to this contract, each man agrees to put the community ahead of himself and to obey the general will, or the will of all that is centered on the collective good. The contract also establishes the sovereign, a living body comprised of every member of the social contract, to enforce the decrees of the general will. Once the social contract is in place, citizens surrender themselves to the ge... ... middle of paper ... ... the general will and the laws.
Rawls begins his work by defining the role of the principles of justice “to specify the fair terms of social cooperation. These principles specify the basic rights and duties to be assigned by the main political and social institutions, and they regulate the division of benefits arising from social cooperation and allot the burdens necessary to sustain it.” (7) Through these fair principles of justice, Rawls aims to build a realistic utopia. The two principles of justice he spells out in his work are: “Each person has the same indefeasible claim to a fully adequate scheme of equal basic liberties, which scheme is compatible with the same scheme of liberties for all; and Social and economic inequalities are to satisfy two conditions: first, they are t... ... middle of paper ... ... of ignorance, the parties would come to his two basic principles of justice as written above. Another key component of Rawls two principles of justice is the second part of the second principle, which is known as the difference principle “as a principle of distributive justice in the narrow sense” (61). The difference principle is meant to give the most advantage to the least advantaged group in society by providing “fair and equal opportunity” (61).
First, it is important to protect the individual citizen’s inalienable rights because of property. Property is the individual citizen’s own freedom, equality, and independence. Every individual citizen’s are born with his or her own property; therefore, it cannot be taken away from them. Through the social contract the individual citizen’s have the freedom to give away their property in return for protection. Second, it is important to protect the individual citizen’s inalienable rights because it is mutual agreement.
The definition of human rights is: “The basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law.” http://www.thefreedictionary.com/human+rights Human rights means being able to work where you’re qualified to work without your skin colour, race or religion being the reason you can’t; it means having the right to be human, that’s why it’s so important. “Human rights are concerned with equality and fairness. They recognise our freedom to make choices about our life and develop our potential as human beings. They are about living a life free from fear, Harassment or discrimination. There are a number of basic rights that people from around the world have agreed on, such as the right to life, freedom from torture and other cruel and inhuman treatment, rights to a fair trial, free Speech and freedom of religion, rights to health, education and an adequate standard of living.
In his book, he stresses constantly the different types of freedom there are, natural, civil, and moral. Natural freedom is being able to do whatever one wants. Civil freedom is in agreement with The Social Contract in which has to obey the laws the Rousseau helped make in the Constitution. Moral freedom is doing the right thing and not whatever you want. Rousseau thought that civil freedom was th... ... middle of paper ... ... general will” (Bertram, 12).
Promoting goodness is essential for the growth of society and much more essential for the improvement of peace within. This is necessary as it directs humans to diversity and support one another through thick and thin. Peace is the most important aspect of society as it is the cornerstone of just, vibrant, sustainable, and meaningful community around. Laws create a line that cannot be crossed to inhibit infringing or offence amongst people. Peace is an important part because it asks a simple question to everybody, “can peaceful communities prevail without seeking justice and equality all the time?” Government has the responsibility to structure society and encourage virtuous behavior (Lao Tzu).
In all, this passage indicates the true basis of obtaining the general will. Everyone must be treated equally and fairly in society as citizens so that opinions can be heard and there will be less unfairness within society. To conclude, the general will is successful when it guarantees the civic equality of all