A therapeutic dendritic cell-based vaccine for HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2011;203:473–8. 10. Van Gulck E, Van Tendeloo VF, Berneman ZN, Vanham G. Role of dendritic cells in HIV-immunotherapy.
Since Africa is still a developing nation and is unable to provide efficient care to those that become ill, there is a high demand to quickly understand all aspects of how the virus works. This includes how it causes disease, how it develops within its host and spreads, and the most effective way to fight it. Hemorrhagic fever is a deadly and fast acting disease that causes death in humans. It is caused by many different viruses, including those in Family Arenaviridae, Flaviviridae, Bunyaviridae, and Filoviridae. One of the deadliest in Family Filoviridae is Ebolavirus, which has a 25-90% fatality rate (Center for Disease Control.
Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected region, with nearly 1 in every 20 adults living with HIV. Sixty nine per cent of all people living with HIV are living in this region.” (2013). There are several methods of transmission for the HIV virus and those include occurrences through sexual contact, drug use, mother- child transmission and so on. Because this virus responsibility is weakening a person’s immune system, it makes the body more susceptible to other types of infections and depending on what type of treatment they’re taking for the virus, it’ll eventually develops AIDS. “The majority of transmissions are found in regions where antiretroviral therapy availability ... ... middle of paper ... ...uendler, H., Tong, T., Narayan, K. M., Du, S. X., Whalen, R. G., & ... Zwick, M. B.
Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is the most serious variety of DF, in which bleeding along with sudden onset of fever occurs (Wills, Oragui, Stephens, et al. 2002) Bleeding is usually severe and is from mucosal surfaces such as nose, gut, gums, or vagina. Liver becomes enlarged, and in severe cases, collapse or failure of circulation ensures. Abnormal clotting of blood, decrease in platelet count (thrombocytopenia), and leaking of plasma via capillaries are some of the aspects of DHF (Kabra, Jain, Singhal, Ratageri 1999). The rate of mortality increases in patients in which gastrointestinal bleeding developed in comparison to those who do not develop.
The brain’s white matter can be destroyed. This destruction causes cell death, hemorrhage and edema. The edema begins to compress the blood vessels this causes intracranial pressure (Mayo Clinic, 2011). Some of the viruses that cause encephalitis are arboviruses, cytomegalovirus, poliovirus, herpes zoster, and herpes simplex type 1. West Nile virus has been a big issue in the United States.
Another significant complication caused by WNV as seen in about 1% of the population that gets infected is illness affecting nerve organs which is caused by the invasive nature of the disease which ruptures areas of the Central Nervous System causing infection in these structures (Sejvar, 2014). Neurologic invasion is usually seen several days after the onset of the systemic illness. The most common symptoms include; headache, altered level of consciousness, and focal weakness seen in different variations (Sejvar, 2014). Some of the neuroinvasive diseases caused by WNV are; encephalitis, meninigitis and acute flaccid paralysis (Sejvar, 2014). The inflammation of the connective tissue layers of the brain otherwise known as West Nile Meningitis is the largest contributor of neuroinvasive disease in the younger age groups of those infected with WNV.
Plasmodium falciparum, the leading cause of the most severe cases of malaria, has been the topic of these studies. Researchers have found that the ABO blood group antigens may be of significance to susceptibility and resistance in individuals. With this newfound knowledge, the development of new vaccines or drugs can be researched to end the increasing drug resistance to current therapeutics on the market. P. falciparum is widely transmitted through the Anopheles mosquito bite as a sporozoite. Once inside it begins a vicious life cycle causing acute hemolytic anemia, weakness and fatigue, cyclic fever, other organ issues: lungs and kidneys, even death.
Clinical infectious diseases. 2010;51(10):1201--1208. 2. Papatheodoridis G, Buti M, Cornberg M, LA H, Janssen D, Pol S et al. Corrigendum to:‘‘EASL clinical practice guidelines: Management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection’’[J Hepatol 2012; 57: 167--185].
Bioterrorism: Smallpox Smallpox is a highly infectious and fatal disease caused by the Variola virus. It causes extremely painful pustules to sprout across the entire body. Spread from human to human, it has since been eradicated from the world through the efforts of the World Health Organization. However, there is a distinct possibility that it may be reintroduced through bioterrorism. Biological weapons may cause another pandemic to erupt across the world and kill millions of individuals.
It’s a world class traveler, but it doesn’t have a passport. It’s highly contagious, but it can’t be cured. Ebola: (EBOV) the virus that has captured the attention of viewers worldwide with its recent outbreak. The World Health Organization has confirmed that 5,288 people have recently lost their lives to the contagious virus, and due to the rising death tolls, have marked this outbreak to be the deadliest. The sudden reappearance of EBOV has not only encouraged the continued effort towards containment, but has also sparked another concern: Could this plaguing virus be morphed into a weapon?