Role Of Starch And Gluten In Bread

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Food Studies Assignment.
(i) The role of the starch and gluten components of flour in achieving the desired sensory properties of the bread or pasta.
Flour is the most important ingredient in bread making as flour contains gluten and starch present in the wheat grains in which flour is made from. The Savoury Twister Bread recipe is found on page 18 of (Anon, 2014) and the type of flour used in this recipe is strong flour. This is a high gluten flour it contains between 12-15% gluten. (P.Cauvian, 2008) states that the higher the protein content in flour the better its ability to trap and contain carbon dioxide gas. Yeast enables gluten to expand by adsorbing carbon dioxide produced during proving. This helps the bread prove, rise in the oven,
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Removing gluten from bread mixtures result in a liquid batter instead of a dough batter. This thus results in a baked savoury twister bread with a crumbly texture and pale exterior. Both wheat and gluten originate from the wheat grain gluten originates from the germ and starch originated from the endosperm of the grain. Starch’s key roles in bread making are gelatinisation and its break down by enzymes. (P.Edwards, 2007) Explains that starch is insoluble in cold water and therefore its granules do not swell. However if starch is dispersed in cold water and is heated, there will be a temperature at which the starch starts to swell and and the dough will increase in size. Damaged starch granules present in flour absorb water when mixed into the dough. Starch works by adsorbing the water gluten gives out when it is broken down. It is accepted that wheat starch gelatinization starts occurring between approximately 60oC to 70oC and a temperature of 75oC in the oven ensures the successful gelatinisation of bread. Starch also feeds the…show more content…
The weighing of ingredients is essential as inaccurate weighing can result in faults in the taste and texture of the bread. The flour was sieved to aerate the mixture and help it rise in the oven. A well was made in the centre of the flour and mixed into a paste using water of 37 degrees. The temperature is vital for the water as if the water is too hot the yeast cells may be killed or if the water is too cold the fermentation process was slowed down. The flour adsorbs water and gluten is formed. A Kenwood mixer was used instead of kneading the dough to save time and ensure the bread was not over kneaded. Kneading the dough is necessary to develop the gluten in the dough to enable it to become strong and elastic. Over-kneaded dough often produces a hard crust and a dry interior. The sundried tomatoes were tucked into the bread carefully to prevent them burning in the oven. The pieces were cut uniformly in size to prevent smaller pieces cooking quicker in the oven and as a result burning. The environment of the Home Economics room provided the yeast with the perfect conditions to prove. As it was warm as the ovens were on and the room was to full capacity of students, it was given time (thirty minutes) to act in the dough, dry yeast was used which improved its fast acting status, the correct amount of yeast and salt was added to enable
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