In primates such as chimpanzees it is imperative to look at their culture to understand their intelligence. Culture in this circumstance means a specific set of behaviors obtained through learning in a population/species. Chimpanzee’s intelligence is quite unique how they interact with their environment and use it to their benefit just like humans. They have the ability to overcome the obstacles of everyday life through learning and the ability to use tools to create a better quality of life. The complexity of their intellect is different from any other animal ever seen.
Verification that non-human primates do in fact have culture will be achieved through discussing the meaning of culture, how and why culture has changed over evolutionary time from non-primates, to non-human primates, to early hominids to early humans (Janson, et al.,2003:57), as well as the multiple components, such as symbolism, teaching, imitation, speech and “gesture demand brain-size mediated neurological capacities”, which include fine motor skills and the ability to construct variable, complex motor acts, concepts, and objects, that will help determine whether non-human primates possess symbolic culture (Gibson, 2002: 323). Customs and traditions of Homo sapiens species are countless, unique and e... ... middle of paper ... ... 18, 2011 Sapolsky, Robert M. 2006 Culture in Animals: The Case of Non-Human Primate Culture of Low Aggression and High Affiliation University of North Carolina Press, Electric Document, http://www.jstor.org/stable/3844414 Accessed March, 18, 2011 Tomasello, Michael 1999 The Human Adaptation for Culture Annual Reviews, Electronic Document, http://www.jstor.org/stable/233404 Accessed March, 18, 2011 Works Cited Whiten, Andrew, Horner, Victoria, Marshall-Pescini, Sarah 2003 Cultural Pantrhopology. In Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews vol. 12, no.2, pp. 92-105 Wiley Subscription Services Inc., a Wiley Company Whiten, Andrew, Goodall, Jane, McGrew, and W.C. 2003 Cultures in Chimpanzees.
In an important article, Terrace, Petitto, Sanders, and Bever reported that apes were imitating and were being taught by their trainers’ commands, rather than naturally speaking. The apes are trained to communicate with humans so they can relate to them. Terrace and his colleagues at Columbia University gave much attention to a chimpanzee that they trained named Nim,... ... middle of paper ... ... have made discoveries that may cause even the skeptics to take notice. Ongoing studies at the Yerkes Primate Research Center have revealed amazing similarities in the brains of chimpanzees and humans. Through brain scans of live chimpanzees, researchers have found that, as with humans, “the language-controlling PT [planum temporale] is larger on the left side of the chimps’ brains than on the right.
Those behaviors that are useful survive, those that are not, die out. It has been proven that chimpanzees can grasp the basic idea of language. According to Rumbaugh (1995), recent studies show that apes... ... middle of paper ... ...lphins may seek selves in mirror images. (indications of self-awareness in dolphins) (Brief article). Science News, 159(18).
Koko, in captivity, was able to learn American sign language, demonstrate self-awareness and the ability to deceive. Food preparation is a feature of culture that can be seen amongst humans and primates. Humans prepare their food by cooking it as this helps with easier digestion and extraction of nutrients from the food. Although primates do not cook their food, Japanese macaque monkeys have been observed to wash potatoes that are covered with sand prior to eating the potatoes (Boesch, 2003). This behavior not only displays culture amongst the macaque monkeys, it also shows that they have the cognitive a... ... middle of paper ... ... the gorillas are taken away from their family and are living in captivity.
They are capable of reacting to stimuli in an appropriate manner. Researchers have measured intelligence in primates in a number of situations in an effort to determine the level of cognition these primates possess. Russon and Begun, researchers who have explored ape intelligence state, “In the physical domain, great apes do use tools in ways that require their grade of cognition but they devise equally complex manual techniques and solve equally complex spatial problems” (Russon and Begun 2004). Apes have the abilit... ... middle of paper ... ...nd Comparative Psychology. N.p., 2007.
Primate Culture The meaning behind Culture Culture in this case essentially means a specific behavior obtained through learning in a population/species. Although there have been several definitions for culture, they are different in their description of underlying transmission mechanisms. Fragaszy and Perry define the tradition, the core component of every definition of animal culture, as “a distinctive behavior pattern shared by two or more individuals in a social unit, which persists over time and that new practitioners acquire in part through socially aided learning.” (Lamon, 2017, p. :1). Despite the fact laboratory studies are vital in order to acquire useful information about culture in primates; it also places the primates in a stricter,
While taking the biological anthropology course at the University of Arkansas, I have learned the extent of primate patterns and behaviors, most importantly, in relation to human behavior and social interaction. There is one primate that single-handedly relates to humans in terms of human characteristics such as sexual behavior, how they handle aggression, their psychological demeanor, movement, and socialization. The pygmy chimpanzee, also known as the bonobo, is this particular primate. The bonobo is known for their ability to resolve problems with in their life through sexual intercourse. I chose this topic because I find this fascinating, seeing as how I have already written a research paper on human development and sexual interaction between different human cultures.
Creatures on earth use various ways to communicate. Animals frequently using sound as a signal consist with messages they want to send. Although the human language uses lots of arbitrary symbols, and human language is passed from generation to generation, there are several successful cases of training other animals to use human language. Whether or not animals are able to use human language is a controversial topic. In my opinion, an ape does use language, this essay will discuss five human language features(dual articulation, semanticity, productivity, learnability and feedback)and, find out how design features appear in several chimpanzee experiments, especially Allen and Beatrice 's experiment of teaching sign language to chimpanzee.
Together, they published a paper titled “Does the Chimpanzee Have a Theory of Mind?” “In it, they relied primarily on a series of experiments...” which tested chimpanzees to determine rather or not they could “infer human goals in observed situations” (Fowler 187). The results offered an astounding yes. This confirms that chimpanzees, in some capacity, have the ability to empathize for others. In addition to chimpanzees ability to have an emotional connection with others, they also have the ability to communicate through sign language. Washoe was “the