Rice Production Case Study

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CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
Global demand for rice is increasing from years to years which would require to produce more rice than it does now, and this part of the agenda in food security that has been addressed in the World Food Summit 1996 (Azman et al, 2014). The total area under rice cultivation is globally estimated to be 150 million hectares, with annual production averaging 500 million metric tons. This represents 29% of the total output of grain crops worldwide (Onyango, 2014). Nowadays, due to the growing importance of the crop and increasing challenges of the attainment of food-security' class='brand-secondary'>food security, it has been estimated that the annual rice production needs to increase from 586 metric tons in 2001 to meet the projected global demand of about 756 metric tons by 2030 (Onyango, 2014).

Meanwhile in Malaysia, rice is staple food for Malaysians and source of income for farmers. Therefore, the government needs to increase self-sufficient level (SSL) in rice production from 73% to 86% in 5 years (Azman et al., 2014). Increasing crop yield is the main agenda of most local paddy growers through measures such as the introduction of new cultivars, reviewing existing planting practices such as fertilizing and pesticide cycle, type and amount of fertilizer and pesticide used and the
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However, it became more widespread recently, which was believed to be partly due to the wide scale planting of a susceptible rice variety, MR 84, for many long consecutive years. Unfortunately, there are several major diseases in paddy cultivation. These diseases have become a resistant to farmers from getting higher production lately. Examples of major diseases in paddy are bacterial leaf blight, blast disease, brown spot and sheath brown rot. Among of the disease, bacterial leaf blight disease caused by Xoo seems to be harmed to the rice

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