It has been said that healthcare spending is skewed towards non-Maori. This is most likely because the majority of the population is non-Māori and they often utilise health care services more than Māori. Māori are less likely to use healthcare services due to the inequalities they experience, the lack of representation in the workforce, and the lack of integration and respect for their values and culture. As a result, the healthcare sector needs to focus on providing health services that are culturally appropriate and catered to the needs of vulnerable
The poor are usually more likely to die from infectious diseases because of their lack of health care. People in poverty also have the highest risk of infant mortality. Infant mortality is the risk of death in the 1st year of life. Substandard housing is facilities where people live that have inadequate heating, air conditioning, electricity, or structural durability. Poverty links to substandard housing because people live in crowding, dangerous lead based paint, lack of heat, broken window and locks and collapsing wall and ceiling homes.
At the national level, highest incident for low birth weight respectively are Bangladesh (50%, 39%), India(28%, 21%), Pakistan (25%, 18%) and in Sri Lanka(19%, 13%). The prevalence of low birth weight is higher in Asia than elsewhere, predominantly because of under nutrition of mother before pregnancy exacerbated under nutrition during pregnancy. The amount of 60% women in south Asia and 40% in South East Asia are under weight. Low weight at birth has a profoundly adverse effect on the health and development of neonate. LBW is probably the main reason why over 50% of children in South Asia are under weight.
Thus GNP comprises GDP plus the differences between the income residents receive from abroad for factor services (labor and capital) fewer payments made to nonresidents who contribute to the domestic economy. Many Third World countries have a low level of per capital income, in addition there is a slower GNP growth compare to the developed nations. Secondly, many people in third world countries are unhealthy and constantly battle with disease while trying to stay alive. The infant mortality rate is very high compared to the developed countries. One reason that leads to this is that they do not have the access to safe drinking water and health service.
Housing; “involves both a side (dwelling) and a situation (neighbourhood)” (National Advisory Committee on Health and Disability NHC, 1998, p. 30). Housing is a key aspect towards poverty, in turn has a connection with inadequate health (PHAC, 2004). This relates strongly with quality of housing. People live in properties that are cold and damp which are not insulated. Therefore, these factors promote susceptibility to disease, particularly in younger children (PHAC, 2004).
Unemployment, poverty and the living conditions of the Maori population all play a significant role in the inequalities Maori face. As discussed unemployment is shown to be a large contributor to the lowered mortality rate of the Maori population, as well as effecting their mental health greatly. Unemployment can also act as a catalyst to other social determinants of health, such as poverty among the Maori population. The lack of income, can make it hard for families to provide the right food and recreational requirements for a healthy growing lifestyle. therefore, contributing greatly to the Maori populations growing obesity epidemic.
Infant mortality rates are death of children younger than 1 year. The infant mortality rate in the U.S. is surprisingly higher than most industrialized nations - the rate is shown later on the text. Much of these deaths are complications caused by lack of care such as; low-birth-weight babies, preterm babies, smoking, substance usage, lack of high quality health care, lack of food and nutrition, and chronic diseases. In contrasts, prevention methods could readily change the outcomes of infant mortality, by simple behavioral changes. According to the Healthy Paso del Norte Report, in 2013 8.8% of babies were low-birth-weight, which is a little bit more than the national average.
We as a society need to understand why homelessness in childhood happens, and understand how drastically it effects children’s development overall. We must gain a better understanding of the specific issues arising from homelessness in childhood; Physical; Psychological; and Academic to understand how to minimize and reverse those effects of childhood homelessness. Biological Perspective From a biological perspective the environment a child is exposed to can have great effects on their health that can last a lifetime. Poor living conditions and constant stress contribute to bad? Health.Many live in rundown establishments with leaks, toxic mold and rodent and insect infestations which carry diseases.
There are several factors that account for differences between socioeconomic and racial and ethnic groups. These factors include a lower sedentary life style, cigarette smoking and less likely to have health insurance coverage or receive preventive care among these groups. Those who live more sedentary life styles are at risk for heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure, all things that effect lower-socioeconomic groups more often than those in higher income brackets. Those who are less educated are also twice as likely to smoke cigarettes as the most educated.
Numerous studies have demonstrated that children in poverty have a higher mortality rate than their counterparts who are at a socioeconomic advantage. According to Gateway Pediatrics, national surveys often report impoverished parents often report their children’s health as being “poor” and “fair” compared to more affluent parents who often report their child’s health as being “excellent” (Wood, 2003). Wood states that children that come from low-income families have “higher rates of hospital admissions, disability days, and death rates” (2003). Impoverished families frequently lack access to basic affordable health care and are affected more commonly by single-parent families and poor nutritional health habits. Poor housing also plays a factor in subpar health conditions among children in poverty.