Restorative justice empowers victims and challenges offenders

Before considering it a biomedical construct, illness is a human experience, deeply rooted in the social and cultural context in which we live. Besides clinical disease definitions; health problems are experienced at different levels in the life of each person. The whole course of an episode of illness, from its first sow until the therapeutic approach is felt different by each particular individual, shaped by multiple coordinated of his life. The identification, investigation and deepening of aspects of diseases is a favourite object of study of more than many social disciplines, among which sociology and health studies.
In recent decades, social scientists concerned with health and illness focused on the notion of the body; the debate about the human body and its representations in the medical field as well as in social and cultural context constitutes an important chapter in sociology and health studies. In this essay, my intention is to undertake a detailed analysis of how different models of conceptualizing the body allow addressing more insights or deeper approaches, and the impact that it has on personal and social life of an individual. The first part of the essay is a brief exploration of the mechanistic model of the body, based on the Cartesian dichotomy of mind / body, and how the disease is conceptualized in this model. In the second part we will focus on theoretical approaches on the human body coming from social sciences and humanities, by trying to supply the integral perspective on the relationship between body, self and society, perspective that allows a rethinking of illness and its effects , taking into account the context of the entire life of the individual.
Considering the Cartesian philosophical assumptions,...

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... the dichotomy disease / Illness established to differentiate between pathology and suffering of the individual. While disease is an organic condition that can be discovered through various laboratory procedures, illness is much more subjectively, describing the status of the individual suffering and how the suffering is influencing his daily experience of life ( EJ Sobo , 2004:3 ) .The concept of illness includes both individual reactions to the state of being ill, and beliefs and attitudes that he has on the disease of suffering ( M. Winkelman 2009:60 ) . At least in theory, disease is universal, pathological damage of the body can be labelled and classified. Illness, however, is a variable factor, influenced by human personality traits, family background and social context, as well as, by the cultural context which acts as a modelling vector of human suffering.
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