It is at this stage of sampling that ethical skills and sensitivity are required. The potential participants should be informed the aim of the study, what their participation entails, the nature of being volunteers, and the protection of their anonymity to help them give an informed consent to participate in the study. Researchers who obtain data from people are expected to maintain high ethical standards both during their research and data sharing. If researchers pay attention, even confidential research data can be shared safely. The important aspects of ethical data sharing can be achieved by gaining informed consent, by anonymizing data, by controlling data access, and by applying for an appropriate license.
Study Area The research is mainly focused in two Village Development Committee (Khokana and Bungamati) located southwest of Lalitpur District of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal (tripadvisor, 2014). Farming is the major occupation of the villagers so a sample survey is an appropriate method to collect data, which represents the entire Lalitpur District of Kathmandu city, Nepal. 5. Methodology There are mainly three types of research approaches quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. The different philosophical views are widely used to construct the research design.
Agriculture in the Himalayas of Nepal According to some estimates, as much as 90% of Nepal's population relies on agriculture for its sustenance.  The significant climactic variations between Nepal's sub-tropical Terai region, hills region, and Himalayan mountain region lead to a variety of different agricultural models. Within the northern Himalayan region, additional variations in agricultural style exist because of changes in the qualities of available soil and quantities of moisture at different altitudes. Some researchers remark that it is even possible to anticipate the ethnicity of a group in a rural Himalayan village by glancing at an altimeter, as the traditional lifestyles maintained by the Nepali-speaking caste Hindus and sub-Tibetan peoples require the climactic conditions present at certain altitudes.  This paper will introduce a variety of agricultural systems and practices found in the Himalayas, and it will also explore the relationships that the Himalayas' Nepali inhabitants have with weather conditions and the climate.
How was the research done? How will these results help me answer my research question? However, the type of research paper included will determine the critical appraisal tool to be used. Thus, a critical appraisal is important on account of the fact that this literature review is not out to dismiss low quality research articles, but rather to weigh each article’s flaws and strength. It is therefore important to assess whether the overall study design of the chosen articles meet the study objectives (Greenhalgh 2010).
4. Research: Case study on CAP 2007-2013 In this chapter, a case study performed in Rural Development policy 2007-2013 (HR 1698/2005). There are two main objectives: • Identification of support policies to family farming • Identification of policies that could be improved for the benefit of family farming. For this study was taken into account the recorded characteristics of family farming (Gasson & Errington, 1993). 4.1 Axis 1 - Improving the competitiveness of the agricultural and forestry sector Interventions of this axis aimed at reversing the age structure and the small size of farms, restructuring and development of business structures through the promotion of technological innovation and equipment, upgrade and improve the infrastructure of the primary sector, and development of human resource skills on adapting to new requirements.
Validity A research is valid to the world when a number of key concepts are used in the research design. The document must be organized and planned according to the criteria used in the field. Some important concepts to know include: validity, variable, operationalization, sample, measurement, measurement error, causation, plausible rival explanations, hypothesis, reliability, and unit of analysis. The researcher must learn how to apply each key concept in an effort to make the research study valuable. These concepts will be reviewed individually to be able to understand how to apply them when writing a research paper.
This ensures an ease of understanding the data. This section provided an outline of the research, which the author adopted to complete the research questions of the project. It provides a summary of the research methodology, which was used, and the reasons for using such methods. Ethical Issues Ethical considerations play a huge role throughout the report. According to Cooper and Schindler (2008), “Ethics is made up of norms or standards of behaviour that guide moral choices about our behaviour and relationships with others.
Under the APA Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, section 8.02 explains informed consent. Research is important but guidelines are necessary to protect the researchers and the participants and to make sure the results are valid and reliable. Ethics Many refer to ethics as the moral stature of what a person believes is right or wrong. Ethics do help a reasonable person refrain from doing what society has determined to be wrong such as murder or rape, as well as other wrongs and they influence morals, beliefs and principles. Ethics are logical and rational standards of right and wrong that guide a human being by determining what a person should do.
The more formal nature of quantitative research with the researcher having a more distant and professional relationship with the participants makes it easier to follow the guiding principles of ethics. The researcher should inform the participants of: the purpose of the study, the demographics of the group being studied, who will be able to access the results, the degree of confidentiality of the responses, and the intended use of the results. Full disclosure and consent should cover all ethical issues in quantitative research. With respect to experimental quantitative research, ethical issues focus on problems related to participants who receive an experimental treatment. There are difficult ethical issues involving the participants who are in the placebo or control group.
One of the most important though is non-harm of the participant, and the participant’s ability to opt out of the experiment even after initial consent (American Psychological Association, 2010). These ethics are important because they outline boundaries of the working relationship. This allows the participant to have ... ... middle of paper ... ...all situations can be tested without deception. Just as the world around us is subjective to one another, so are the ethics that each of us live by. We must understand the risks and rewards prior to consent if we have any issues with scientific study.