Issues: Understanding Controversy and Society. ABC-CLIO, 2014. Web. 2 May 2014. Hollis, Daniel W.
Some people believe that race is the primary determinant of human abilities and capacities and behave as if racial differences produce inherent superiorities. People of color are often injured by these judgements and actions whether they are directly or indirectly racist. Just as individuals can act in racist ways, so can institutions. Institutions can be overtly or inherently racist. Institutions can also injure people.
“The term “affirmative action” was first introduced by President Kennedy in 1961 as a method of redressing discrimination that had persisted in spite of Civil Rights Laws and constitutional guarantees” (Brunner and Rowen, “A History and Timeline of Affirmative Action”). Then on September 24, 1965, affirmative action was enforced for the first time. “Issued by President Johnson, the executive order requires government contractors to “take affirmative action” toward prospective minority employees in all aspects of hiring and employment” (Brunner and Rowen, “Timeline of Affirmative Action Milestones” ). Towards the late ‘70s, some problems began to arise (Brunner and Rowen, “A History and Timeline of Affirmative Action” ). As time progressed, more and more court cases were fought against affirmative action and the universities that enforced it.
Web. 1 May 2014. Tairo, Mario. "A Critical Look at Affirmative Action - Panorama - TakingITGlobal." A Critical Look at Affirmative Action - Panorama - TakingITGlobal.
Affirmative action allowed minorities a fair chance to pursue education and career advancement. It originally was intended for temporary assistance and was supposed to crush existing racially biased ideas in society. What was once a noble and valiant idea in 1965 has taken the very rights away it was intended to give. As affirmative action was introduced, many industries found the need to reduce standards in order to accept minorities. In many colleges and universities, a certain number of openings were set aside specifically for minorities because of the necessity to fill the racial quota for college populations.
24 Mar. 2014. Lecture. • Oatley, Thomas H. "Commitment Problems and Civil Wars." Poli 150 Class.