Research Paper On Lung Cancer

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Lung Cancer

Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world, and Lung cancer is one of the most vicious types of cancer. As commonly known, Smoking remains one of the most important causes of lung cancer. Along with the causes, symptoms, and how to contain the disease through treatments and prevention techniques. Followed by a statistical representation that shows how deadly lung cancer is. All to provide a source of awareness toward lung cancer.


Lungs are a pair of spongy organs within the thorax (chest) that take oxygen from the air and release carbon dioxide out. Lungs are essential organs in the body, and the development of diseases such as lung cancer can be lethal to the patients. Lung
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First, the small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), which makes up around (20%) of all lung cancers. Developed by an abnormal growth of the neuroendocrine cells. SCLCs are often located in the central region of the lungs. Second, the non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), and it accounts for (80%) of lung cancers. Developed by an abnormal growth of the epithelial cells. NSCLCs are subdivided into three types. First, adenocarcinoma (40%) of lung cancers. It is found in the periphery region of the lungs. Second, the squamous cell carcinoma (30%) of lung cancers. Often located in the central region of the lungs. Third, the large cell carcinoma (10%) of lung cancers. Found in either the periphery or central region of the patient's lungs.
Lung cancer treatment
The treatment of lung cancer depends on the patient's overall health, the size of the cancer and its position. Lung cancer treatments are surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and targeted drug therapy.
Surgery: surgeons remove the cancerous tissue depending on the position of the cancer and how large it is. Types of surgeries include the following:
Removal of one lobe (lobectomy) if the cancer is a part of one of the lungs
Removal of two lobes (bilobectomy) if the cancer is in two lobes of one of the two lungs. The right lung has 3 lobes, and the left lung has 2
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The targeted drug therapy includes taking drugs such as afatinib (also known as BIBW 2992 or gilotrif). First, afatinib works by targeting a protein called epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Then it blocks the EGFR function. Epidermal growth factor receptor is on the surface of both normal cells and cancerous cells. when on the cancerous cells, it will promote the cells’ activity, leading to excessive cell growth and division.

Stages of lung cancer Lung cancer is staged according to the tumor size and place.
Stage I: The cancerous tumor is in only one lung and has not spread to another area, and it is called the (Primary tumor).
Stage II: The cancer cells also contain lymph nodes that are nearby the primary tumor.
Stage III: Cancer is found in the lungs and the lymph nodes along the trachea. It is divided into two types:
Stage IIIA: cancer cells are on the same side of the chest as the primary tumor, or spread to the nearby structure.
Stage IIIB: cancer cells are on the opposite side of the chest or over the collar bone.
Stage IV: Cancer cells are metastasized to either the other lung or to distant organs and lymph nodes outside the lungs
Lung cancer can be prevented by:
Quitting smoking tobacco or cigarettes
Avoiding being a second-hand
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