Each question should be related to the objective of the study. Literature review is very important aspect of the research process, it provides the inputs and guides the researcher to design a new instrument or use an existing instrument which can be used to analyze the data
Many personality disorders may experience spiritual distress, in particular, clients who have borderline personalities. Lack of spirituality causes clients with borderline personalities to have instability with their emotions and their actions. This makes them at risk for spiritual distress as evidence by challenged beliefs and no value system. As nurses, we must help clients who have borderline personality disorders understand how important spirituality is and how it has an effect on their lives. Nurses must display an understanding and accepting attitude, and encourage the client to verbalize any feelings including those of anger or loneliness.
The study conducted by Payne et al. (2007) shows that Rogers’ theory and therapy methods can be used to understand and treat such disorders as post-traumatic stress disorder. Viewing PTSD through a Rogerian view can also expand readers understanding of the person-centered theory and its ability to be applied to many different medical problems despite refusing to label individuals. Although, there is a lack of research regarding CCT and alleviating PTSD symptoms this article is a great aid to therapists seeking a nondirective approach and can be an inspiration for future research. Works Cited Payne, A., Liebling-Kalifani, H., & Joseph, S. (2007).
Validity A research is valid to the world when a number of key concepts are used in the research design. The document must be organized and planned according to the criteria used in the field. Some important concepts to know include: validity, variable, operationalization, sample, measurement, measurement error, causation, plausible rival explanations, hypothesis, reliability, and unit of analysis. The researcher must learn how to apply each key concept in an effort to make the research study valuable. These concepts will be reviewed individually to be able to understand how to apply them when writing a research paper.
Research philosophy, refers to the development of knowledge adopted by the researchers in their research (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). In other words, it is the theory that used to direct the researcher for conducting the procedure of research design, research strategy, questionnaire design and sampling (Malhotra, 2009). It is very important to have a clear understanding of the research philosophy so that we could examine the assumptions about the way we view the world, which are contained in the research philosophy we choose, knowing that whether they are appropriate or not (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009). According to Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill (2009), three major ways of thinking about research philosophy are examined: ontology, epistemology and axiology. Each of them carries significant differences which will have an impact on the way we consider the research procedures.
Some people view counseling as a “cure all” solution to the problems in their personal or professional life, while others see it simply as pointless. The problem is there are the ones who may not know which type of therapeutic approach may be more suitable to the exact nature of what they need the counseling for. The purpose of this paper is to show how talk therapy may need adapted with different counseling methods with 3 specific diagnoses and how their approach is able to help with specific mental issues through research. Introduction Therapy has long since been viewed in certain circles as a taboo. If you are in therapy there must be something wrong with you.
The pragmatist approach in the research design and implementation phases allows for asking which techniques and procedures are best for the research problem. Knowing the principles underlying the different methods used in both qualitative and quantitative research
Research design is a systematic and strategic method used to study a scientific problem. A researcher’s goal is to formulate a scientific model using methods which promote and create further questions in understanding behavior and events. The purpose of a research design is to provide answers to research questions, plan of study, and allows accurate assessment of cause and effect relationships between independent and dependent variables. Its framework is configured of elements which help to determine the type of study, research question, hypothesis, variables, and methods of data collection. A research design can be referred to as a plan that involves the interconnection of philosophical worldviews, research methods, and selected strategies (Creswell, 2009).
4.1 Type of research design A research design according to Churchill and Iacobucci (2005) can be defined as “The framework or plan for a study, used as a guide to collect and analyze data. It is the blueprint that is followed to complete a study”. In other words a Research Design represents the skeleton of a dissertation project allowing the researcher to create the appropriate conditions for the analysis and collection of data. McGivern (2009) adds that by developing and selecting an accurate research design the chance of completing a high quality research increases and provides the necessary “evidence” to answer the research problem in a successful way. In line with the objectives set, this research will favour a combination of descriptive design and exploratory design.
It is at this time, where clients feel therapists are non-judgmental, goals and responsibilities are most likely to be instigated (Mallinson et al 1996). However, when utilising a person-centred approach in therapeutic dialogue it becomes the client’s choice as to whether their thoughts and emotions linked with metaphor are explored (Nelson-Jones 2006). This can result in clients being unable to resolve issues or events of importance within their lives; here it may be beneficial for the therapist to take on a psychodynamic approach to interpret meanings and conceptualise chosen metaphors. Kirkin (2007) explored the relationship between metaphors and truth telling, he stated that this type of word illusion could be used to obscure the truth and disguise feelings. He also suggested that interpretation of metaphors was individual and although often perceived powerful by clients, key principles were not always understood by the therapist (Kirkin 2007).