L. Krenn,M (1999). Black Diplomacy: African Americans and the State Department, 1945-1969. New york: Sharpe.
Carter G. Woodson: Negro Orators ansd Their Orations (New York, NY, 1925) and The Mind of the Negro (Washington, DC., 1926). Benjamin Quarles: Black Abolitionists, London, 1969. Robert C. Dick: Black ProtestL Issues and Tactics, Wesport, Conn., 1974 Benjamin Quarles: Frederick Douglas. Washington, DC., 1948. William F. McFeely: Frederick Dougles.
Slavery appeared in the United States in late of seventeen centuries as a result of the trade market. These slaves came from Africa to work in large plantations for free labor in America. Historians believe that the first ship of slaves to arrive in America was Dutch to the Virginia colony of Jamestown in 1619 with around 20 slaves. They were used slaves to work in the tobacco, sugar, rice, cotton, and coffee plantations. But slavery emerged the restriction of African’s lives in North America.
Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird In the early twentieth century, the United States was undergoing a dramatic social change. Slavery had been abolished decades before, but the southern states were still attempting to restrict social interaction among people of different races. In particular, blacks were subject to special Jim Crow laws which restricted their rights and attempted to keep the race inferior to whites. Even beyond these laws, however, blacks were feeling the pressure of prejudice. In the legal system, blacks were not judged by a group of their peers; rather, they were judged by a group of twelve white men.
Local governments implemented mechanisms of discrimination to combat citizenship and equality such as Jim Crow laws and the KKK (Bowles, 2011) in place in the south to ensure the white citizen superiority, these inherent beliefs continued for generations. African Americans, believed to be second class citizens were denied their unalienable right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. (Dixon, 2000) Penniless, African Americans left their plantations with nothing more than the shirts on their backs. As African Americans, the lack of voter’s rights lent to an unequal balance in politics to which ensured improper representation in their communities.” Separate but Equal laws” implemented by congress excluded the Negro from gaining a proper education, proper medical treatment and quality services provided in their communities that their white counterparts enjoyed. Though free, African Americans continued struggle for independence raises the question did the emancipation proclamation really free the slaves?
5th ed. Harper Collins College Publishers. New York. 1993. 188-190 Levenson, Alec R., and Williams, Darrell L. Interracial America: Opposing View, “ Affirmative Action Combat Unintentional Racism”, Greenhaven Press Inc., San Diego, 1996, 154-158 Bender, David and Leone, Bruno.