...hs from this disease are bleeding from the lung tissue, heart damage leading to heart failure or abnormal heart rhythms, and serious lung scarring. Complications that make sarcoidosis worse are fungal lung infections, glaucoma and blindness, kidney stones from high calcium levels, osteoporosis or other complications due to taking corticosteroids for a long time, high blood pressure in the arteries of the lung.
According to the American College of Rheumatology (ARC) (2012) and recommendations by the International Task Force of Rheumatologists (2010) treatment is aimed at remission, reduction of the inflammatory response, pain control, conserving joint function and preventing and/or halting joint destruction. Medications used to treat RA fall into two categories: fast acting and slow acting. Fast-acting medications typically address pain and inflammation. Medications include but are not limited to anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, Celebrex and corticosteroids such as cortisone and prednisone. Slow-acting medications slow joint destruction and stimulate remission; these medications include DMARDS and biological medication. The mainstay of treatment is the use of DMARDS such as Methotrexate, Plaquenil, and biologics known as TNF inhibitors including infliximab, etanercept and adalimumab. Since the 1970s DMARDs have been the gold standard of treatment (Kahlenberg and Fox, 2011).
In conclusion, immunosuppressive agents and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors help in reducing the symptoms of Myasthenia Gravis. While acetylcholinesterase inhibitors have a short half-life accompanied by various side effects, it is the best solution at this time to alleviate muscle weakness and fatigue. Pyridostigmine is the most commonly used drug with the lowest toxicity amongst these inhibitors because of its limited bioavailability. Immunosuppressive drugs inhibit antibody release reducing the amount of malfunctioning T-cells that attack the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. While its effects are not immediate with poor absorption, it provides longer periods of symptom relief. The immunological agents are only reduced and not destroyed and thus regenerate to elicit myasthenic symptoms. Further research is necessary to continue the search for a cure.
During the second week when patents are not able to walk, it is still unclear is immunotherapy is needed. However, residual signs may be a factor. Patients with mild forms of the disease are under close observation for at least eight days to make certain that the disease has not spread. As soon as the diagnosis is verified, the treatment process begins with a goal to reduce symptoms, offer immunotherapy, and attempt to shorten the disease. Efforts should also be made to in order to reduce some of the pain and to increase the comfort. The use of comfortable beds, air or water mattresses, a rack that keeps bedclothes elevated over a particularly painful body area, massage, hot or cold tub baths, acupuncture and physiotherapy can all help to ease the pain or discomfort felt by the patient. All the patient’s joints should be exercised, several times daily, to avoid joint pain and muscle deterioration. Exercise has optimal benefits as a treatment, keeping the muscles strong and flexible, and shortening the period of physiotherapy required during recovery. Most patients cannot communicate whether they are in p...
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Due to this disease being so prevalent, much debate as to which treatment modality is best used to treat it, has been an ongoing debate. ...
Clinical evidence suggests that combination therapy using oral antidiabetic agents with complementary mechanisms of action such as a sulfonylurea/metformin may be highly effective in achieving and maintaining target blood glucose levels . Two most commonly used sulphonylureas in combination with metformin are glibenclamide and glimepiride. Glimepiride— considered as a third-generation sulfonylurea agent—has several beneficial pharmacological effects over glibenclamide, a second-generation sulfonylurea. Glimepiride combined with metformin in a single dose presentation has proved to be effective and safe for type 2 diabetes patients who fail with monotherapy on oral antidiabetic agents.
Methotrexate is considered as the gold standard in management of RA. However, it is associated with myelosuppression, hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis. Symptoms of myelosuppression include photosensitivity, rash, nausea/vomitting and shortness of breath. A fall in blood counts can occur as a result of myelosuppression and this is most common in elderly, patients with renal impairment or patients taking anti-folate drugs. If a significant drop in blood count is observed, then methotrexate should be stopped immediately (ACR clinical guidelines committee 1996,Katzung, et.al., 2012).