Relational Political Marketing Analysis

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Literature Survey

Maarek (1995) describes political marketing as a complex process which is the general method of political communication. He further explains the model of political marketing. According to him, political marketing begins with the formulation of a candidate’s strategy. This includes conduction of opinion polls, analysis of opponents and evaluation of the available mediums to carry out the campaign. This is followed by the determination of targets and objectives of the campaign. Once, all the parameters like candidate image, theme of communication, choice of media etc. have been determined, the campaign is conducted. [1Political Marketing Process Models Maria Tsianti MPhil, Responsible for the Press Office of the Deputy Minister
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This traditional approach to politics is demonstrated by the use of slogans, posters and typical ad spots. A more sophisticated approach is instrument-oriented political marketing, which refers to employing a variety of marketing instruments to convince voters, adapt the offered policies to according to the target segment and, hence carry out an efficient and effective campaign. Relational political marketing is a recent phenomenon which lays emphasis on long term relationships that would benefit all participants and the society. The use of social networking sites, e-mails and blogs comes under this approach.
The strategic dimensions of Political Marketing Nikolay Vankov Economic Alternatives, Issue 3, 2013

SV Menon in his paper on Political Marketing Framework, points out that a successful political campaign includes eight generic functions:
1. Product Function:
In mainstream marketing, every seller has to offer a product to its customer. Similarly, in political marketing, every political party offers a product to its voters. The product here is the promise of a good government. It may refer to an idea, a policy or the image of the candidate. For example, in the Lok Sabha elections of 2014, the product function of BJP was to sell the image of Modi as a symbol of
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Cost Function:
Pricing is an important aspect of mainstream marketing. The equivalent of pricing in political marketing is the management of actual and perceived attitude and behavior of voters. The main aim is to reduce the effort on the part of the voter to receive all information, evaluate all alternatives, form an opinion and participate in the process. Effort may be both monetary and non-monetary.

4. Communication Function:
Communication is the most important function of political marketing. It means providing the voters with political content and ideas, and facilitating their interpretation so as to avoid any misconceptions. It generally involves simplifying political messages so that they understandable by all relevant actors. The communication function (defines content) works in tandem with the campaign delivery (defines channel) aspects of the distribution function.

5. News Management Function:
Targeted at the secondary exchange partner (voters being the primary exchange partner) such as media, this function refers to the management of the publicity of the political party and the candidate. It consists of elements such as PR activities, advertising campaigns etc.

6. Fund Raising

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