The World Book Encyclopedia. 2000 ed. Griswold, Rufus Wilmot. "The Scarlet Letter." The Library of Literary Criticism of English and American Authors.
Ferrell. Keith "Graphical user interface." World Book Online Americas Edition. http://www.aolsvc.worldbook.aol.com/wbol/wbPage/na/ar/co/722716. 8 March 2002.
Hawthorne first introduces two symbols, the rose bush and the prison, to the reader. According to Bloom, "the rosebush stands for the spontaneous and irrepressible life of nature and instinct, while the prison door stands for the harsh limitations that must be imposed on nature to maintain order in human societies" (13). Since the rose bush lies so close to the prison, one could interpret the co-existence as a sort of yin and yang. This also implies that where evil and corruption reside, purity and native morality will follow. Representing all things good-natured, the rose bush appears “to symbolize some sweet moral blossom .
Feldmeth, Greg D. “US History Resources”. 29 June 2002. http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html Hawthorne, Nathaniel. “Young Goodman Brown”. Literature and the Writing Process. Elizabeth McMahan, Susan X Day, and Robert Funk.
“Scroll and Codex.” Encyclopedia Romana Online. Encyclopedia Romona. 2001-2002. 11 February 2003. <http://itsa.ucsf.edu/~snlrc/encyclopaedia_romana/scroll/scrollcodex.html>.
14 Jan. 2014. Weinauer, Ellen. "Nathaniel Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter." . Charles Scribner's Sons, 1 Jan. 2003.
The Library of Literary Criticism of English and American Authors. Ed. Charles Wells Moulton. Gloucester, Massachusetts: Peter Smith Publishing, 1959. 341-371.
At the beginning of the book, the reader is introduced to a dark and gloomy town that had first built a prison and a cemetery. Amidst the depressing landscape, is a beautiful rosebush. “But on one side of the portal, and rooted almost at the threshold, was a wild rose-hush, covered, in this month of June, with its delicate gems, which might be imagined to offer their fragrance and fragile beauty to the prisoner as he went in, and to the condemned criminal as he came forth to his doom, in token that the deep heart of Nature could pity and be kind to him.” (Hawthorne 10) This rosebush represents a change, beauty, and hope for the prisoners awaiting their freedom. Being bright and beautiful, the rosebush is shockingly different from the depressing gloom of the rest of society. “In the contrast of the wild rose bush, with its flowers turned into gems, and the prison, turned metaphorically into an unnatural flower - the black flower of civilization -Hawthorne sets his conflict between prisoner and prison (or prisoner and crowd) into a much larger context.