Reflection Of Aristotle's Pathe And Affections Of The Soul

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In this passage, when referring to pathe/affections of the soul, Aristotle is talking about emotions, such as pain, fear, desire, and pleasure, and arguably, perception. Whenever we get angry, happy, upset, etc., there is also a simultaneous change in our bodies. Moreover, a pathe of soul is common to that which has soul. This means that attributes of soul are with body. Understanding what this means can be best done in juxtaposition with human activity. For example, when I say that some activity is done that my sister and I do in common, this does not exclude both of us participating in this activity independently. Moreover, if I ask of some activity of another individual, X, whether it is also common to X’s brother or peculiar to X alone,…show more content…
An axe can chop because it has a certain organization. When we say that an axe chops because of its form or organization, however, we do not mean that this form or organization does anything over and above what the composite axe (form and matter) does. Rather, the axe can chop because it has a certain form or organization. The axe can chop because it is arranged this way. Likewise, if one was to read the claim that ‘if an axe had a soul, it would be its ability to chop’ in a certain way, he or she would be lead to think that the soul, like the axe’s ability to chop, does not explain the activities of the body by doing anything over and above what the body does. Akin to the axe organization, the soul/form of a living body is the way that this living body is organized. Moreover, just like all capacities that come from being organized in a certain way, the soul does not explain activities of organized whole by doing anything. Rather, the soul explains perception by explaining how a body, organized in a certain way, (a body that has a soul), can undergo changes that are perception. This is what someone who thinks that the soul is a functionally useful structure or arrangement would have to say about this…show more content…
Since the sailor, the actuality of a ship, and the ship itself are distinct entities in some sense, it is also possible for the sailor to do things, and undergo changes, that the ship does not do or undergo. For example, the sailor can move his arm, and the sailor walk around the ship; the ship does not/cannot do either. Likewise, the ship can undergo changes that the sailor does/cannot. For instance, the ship can lose a plank, and water can splash up against its wooden sides, but this does not also happen to the sailor. The sailor, the actuality of the ship, is distinct from the ship in a way that the organization of the ship is not. This distinction allows the sailor to do/undergo things that are not just a way of referring to what the ship does/undergoes in virtue of having a certain structure. Moreover, if the soul is the actuality of a body in this way, then it will be possible for the soul to do/undergo things that the body cannot do/undergo, and vice versa. For example, the soul can undergo a spiritual change that is becoming aware of an object of perception, and the body and its organs can undergo a straightforward material change. Perceiving, like sailing, will

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