Santoro, Wayne A. "The Civil Rights Movement and the Right to Vote: Black Protest, Segregationist Violence and the Audience." Social Forces 86.4 (2008): 1391-1414. Web. 15 Oct. 2013.
Barker, Lucius J., Mack H. Jones, Katherine Tate. African Americans and the American Political System 4th ed. Simon & Schuster: United States of America. c1999.
After the Civil War there were more opportunities for African American’s in the Northern portion of the United States. However, by the end of the 1800’s their freedoms and rights were increasing becoming limited in Southern segment of the United States, where the majority of African American’s resided. The government in the South was controlled by rich, white and xenophobic male landowners who sought to prevent those who differed from themselves from obtaining any privileges or influence within their community.
The author of this article, Gordon S. Barker, primarily focused on the southern perspective of the so-called threat of abolitionism. The author goes fully in depth into why the South was inherently displeased with the actions of the North, and vice versa, and how it was inevitable that this nation faced a civil war. He employed the usage of individual articles from popular newspapers at the time to truly reveal how southern whites had felt in their concern for northern values being imposed on the South. The article began with a highly detailed description of the day Slave Commissioner Edward Loring made his decision on Burns’ case, to fully showcase how it was a pivotal event in American History. Throughout the rest of the article, he explores the contradicting legislation from North and South, and individual’s ideologies and how they compared to other popular ideologies of the time.
Different political leaders use different strategies to win the Black votes. For instance, candidates vying for elective positions usually use implicit strategic te...
Ida B. Wells-Barnett is an investigative journalist who wrote in honesty and bluntness about the tragedies and continued struggles of the Negro man. She was still very much involved with the issue even after being granted freedom and the right to vote. Statistics have shown that death and disparity continued to befall the Negro people in the South where the white man was “educated so long in that school of practice” (Pg. 677 Par. 2). Yet in all the countless murders of Negroes by the white man only three had been convicted. The white man of the South, although opposed to the freedom of Negroes would eventually have to face the fact of the changing times. However, they took every opportunity and excuse to justify their continued horrors. There were three main excuses that the white man of the South came up w...
The country’s attitudes towards African Americans leading up to and during the war were the same as they had been for years. The white man dominated and controlled the African American population in America. “For example, figures for 1911 and 1912 indicate that the South spent an average of $10.32 in educating each white child, but only $2.89 for each black child.” (Barbeau 3). This was one of the ways the white man kept control because if most of the newly young “free” African Americans were illiterate, they would not be allowed to vote, voice their opinion, run
Many of the southerners then went toward his plan since they thought it could help them get more resources, and invented the black codes. Because the South happily took advantage of his arrangement, many Radicals of the Congress found it very devastating and planned on making their own Reconstruction Act. There were many Moderates as well, and they were the ones who controlled the party. They thought that Johnson was right when it came to the choice of whether they would include the Negros’ opinions on what the laws would be, yet they agreed that with the Radicals that African Americans should have the right to put a little bit of insight on the constitution and government. This determined that it should be upon the Congress to see if the Reconstruction Act was rational, not President Johnson. So first in 1866, the Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, which guaranteed the rights of former slaves. Johnson then vetoed the act since he opposed the federal protection of the former slaves. The congress then repassed the act, making it the first major law that has been approved over the President’s
Following the closure of the Civil War, America and primarily the former Confederacy were tasked with the problem of how they were going to efficiently bring back thousands of former slaves back into the union and convert them into full-pledged American citizens. Adding on to the problems faced during presidential and radical reconstruction from 1865 to 1877, many people including President Johnson feared the rise of the blacks in politics. Due to the new rise in population, southern senators believed that blacks were not equipped for political equality and that suffrage would be destructive to the government by upsetting the balance of power between the republicans and democrats. Such notion that the blacks were inferior and should be treated
Many people believed that “the blacks, as a people, are unfitted for the proper exercise of political duties…blacks needed a period of probation and instruction” (Richardson 517). Also, a Northern artist stated in art that Black politicians in the South were savage (Richardson 517). Many Northerns believed that African Americans need to learn honor and know how to do things. They also believed that African Americans were bellicose, unsuitable, and not smart enough to be taking on such an honorable job in political duties. This evidence shows that racism still existed and was prodigious in the North. This could have caused the end of Reconstruction because it could have shifted their point of view from helping the African Americans to preventing the African Americans to be
Unfortunately, African American’s hard won equality soon began to deteriorate once more into new socially acceptable forms of segregation. Jim Crow laws now determined one’s rights instead of the Constitution, social barriers in the North too began to rise. For all, it was a time of insecurity and displaced blame, the brunt of which the African Americans took immeasurably. But in the midst of that time of social and political upheaval and unrest, there arose our amendments which to this day give people of all race in the United States the equal opportunity to pursue a better life for
African American were limited socially from 1865 to 1900. Southern state pass laws that increase racial discrimination after the armaments has been pass. Like in Plessy v. Ferguson, the court felt that segregation is lawful. As long that white and blacks were given equal quality that it was legal to separate people by their race. But we all know that the treatment and services given to African American were not the same given to the whites. For example African American rarely got jobs they could not even get a high class job like white folks did. African American were not able to get marry to white or even have the same treatment in school. The white student had
Reconstruction efforts were paralyzed by the Republicans after the death of Lincoln. The Republicans were many capitalists originating the North. Their actions were principally geared towards overthrowing the black leadership in South and retain the white sovereignty that existed before. The Southern whites did not defend the blacks instead backed the northern capitalists in the mission of transforming black government in South to White state (Foner Par
On March 15, 1965, President Lyndon B. Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act. However, many southern states made it impossible for African Americans to vote. Non-violence was still all too often met with violence. By 1968, Dr. King, the apostle of non-violence, would be assassinated, unleashing a new call for “Black Power” across the
In studying the Southern defense of slavery, it appears that southerners were defending a way of life. Many believed that the institution of slavery was the lesser of two evils in terms of providing benefits for workers, others believed that it was at the very foundation of a free society to own slaves and still others saw it merely as an expedient means to an economic end. Although one may acknowledge that the South had understandable political, social and religious reasons for supporting the institution of slavery, the fundamental moral obligation to treat all humans as equals supercedes them all.