The Conservatives lead by President Johnson, believed in a rapid readmission, into the Union, for the defeated Southern states. Johnson's stipulations were solely that the states ratify the 13th Amendment, and repudiate Confederate war debt (thus making it null and void). A second more controversial measure to the democrat's plan for rapid reconstruction was the issuing of pardons to former Confederate officials, landowners, and generals. As a direct result of these pardons, former plantation owners' land was returned. The goal of the Conservatives during Reconstruction was obviously to return the South to the social, political, and economic structure of the antebellum period.
In 1865, prior to Abraham Lincoln's assassination, Reconstruction commenced after the Confederacy's surrender at Appomattox. Post-Civil War, the South's economic, social, and political status lied in ruins. New constitutions had to be established and the country recreated to maintain peace, unity, and order in the United States.
After the Civil War, America went through a period of Reconstruction. This was when former Confederate states were readmitted to the Union. Lincoln had a plan that would allow them to come back, but they wouldn’t be able to do it easily. He would make 10% of the population swear an oath of loyalty and establish a government to be recognized. However, he was assassinated in Ford’s Theater and Andrew Johnson became the president; Johnson provided an easy path for Southerners. Congress did their best to ensure equal rights to freedmen, but failed because of groups who were against Reconstruction, white southern Democrats gaining control within the government and the lack of having a plan in place for recently freedmen.
But once again America was reunited, but its economy was ruined, and was socially and politically damaged. After the Civil War, change was needed. The Civil War helped African Americans get their citizenships, rights to vote, and more importantly, their freedom. On April 11, 1865, President Lincoln introduced his plan for Reconstruction (“Cause”). The Reconstruction was meant to improve and restore America into a successful, united country while helping recently “free” African Americans in society. He warned people that the, years of the Reconstruction would be “fraught with great difficulty.” Three days later he was assassinated (“Cause”). The twelve years after the Civil War was called Reconstruction. The Reconstruction era was an opportunity of change and was an expansion of freedom for former slaves. It was a time where the North and the Republicans were attempting to fix the Southern economy, set up new governments and support the rights of freedmen. There were also many problems and resistance to the Reconstruction process. “…there were so many different views about how Reconstruction should be accomplished, and because so much...
President Lincoln wanted everything to return to normal as quickly as possible after the war. Therefore, Lincoln announced the freeing of all slaves in areas not in Union control. Although the proclamation did not free all slaves everywhere, it was the action that would push Congress to pass the thirteenth amendment in 1865. The amendment, ratified later in 1865, stated that "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude . . . shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." Lincoln also established a plan for reconstruction, which was deemed the Ten Percent Plan. Even before the war ended, Lincoln knew there would be a need of a plan of reconstruction. Lincoln issued a proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction for the people in the south. The proclamation basically forgave and Confederate for trying to secede from the Union if he would swear to support the Constitution of the United States and the Union. Politically, Lincoln would recognize the state executively if one tenth of the conquered state’s total vote in the presidential election f 1860 took an oath of allegiance to the union and organized a government that got rid of slavery. The Radical Republicans wanted a slower readmission process so they trued to pass the Wade-Davis Bill, which would make one half of eligible voters to take the oath of allegiance and accept emancipation.
The presidency of Andrew Johnson in 1965 after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln brought forth a new plan for Reconstruction, which followed a firm mindset of states having their own rights. President Johnson firmly opposed land reform and he also wanted to pardon all rebels . During Reconstruction, with President Johnson running the country, the land that was won by the Union Army and given to the newly freed slaves, was forced back to its owner’s pre Civil War . President Johnson showed obvious signs of bias towards the Southern States to rebuild their economies however which way they pleased, as long as they followed the thirteenth amendment put in place.
During and succeeding the Era of Reconstruction, African American lives were reformed in very substantial ways. Most African Americans thought of Reconstruction as an opportunity to improve the lives of their entire race. They thought it would help them bring equality to their people. However, Reconstruction showed many African Americans how difficult it was to survive independently. Once they left their plantations, they had nowhere to live. African Americans living in the south struggled to find food and shelter. To make matters much worse, Southern Whites were beginning to fight to retain southern white supremacy. “Reconstruction did not provide African Americans with either the legal protections or the material resources to ensure anything
Reconstruction was the time between 1863 and 1877 when the U.S. focused on abolishing slavery, destroying the Confederacy, and reconstructing the nation and the Constitution and is also the general history of the post-Civil War era in the U.S. between 1865 and 1877. Under Abraham Lincoln, presidential reconstruction began in each state as soon as federal troops controlled most of the state. The usual ending date is 1877, when the Compromise of 1877 saw the collapse of the last Republican state governments in the South
1. For some, the primary motive in the Reconstruction was revenge, however I believe that for the majority the primary motives was to help the African Americans. A few radical did want to get revenge on the South for seceding but others wanted equality for African Americans. Proof of this can be seen by the variety of laws and constitutional amendments that are passed. The 13th Amendment eliminated slavery but then the 14th Amendment established national citizenship for persons born or naturalized within the United States. This made sure African Americans were citizens. Furthermore, the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 gave enslaved citizens citizenship and also gave them equal protection and rights of contract along with full access
Poverty was one of the failures of Reconstruction because the African Americans had few job opportunities in the South and some of the white people lost their lands.
Starting with the major racial divisions, which split society into two opposing parties. Reconstruction offers to bring high political leader roles to the black community as education is offered to more and more people. Foner states, “Divisions among whites have long been known to have shaped the course of Reconstruction.” This is a key reason why there are conflicts directly involved within the black community. The Second Reconstruction has successfully improved working opportunities for the blacks, but failed to unify both parties. However the idea of “black power and pride” was rising . This failed portion isn 't blamed on anyone one group of people, “If indeed they were active agents rather than passive victims, then blacks could not be absolved of blame for the failure of Reconstruction.” The cause of the statement is that the emphasis from slavery and free slave, the distinction wasn’t make absolutely clear during the First Reconstruction. If the idea of slavery was left behind and if any tension between whites and blacks was gone during the First Reconstruction, the country wouldn 't have to spend time revisiting the topic. In fact, the country would have the opportunity to use its time on something that would revolutionize society in the future. Foner makes a clear distinction that race wars were hugely impacted by both Reconstruction
Andrew Johnson took office after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln in 1865. He was a Southern Democrat from Tennessee, when he became president, the Civil War had ended and reconstruction was in its beginning stages. Johnson was then faced with the same problems Lincoln had -- the challenge of mending a broken nation, yet there was a definite difference in the ways Johnson and Lincoln approached the problems of Reconstruction. Johnson was not one of our best or brightest presidents, he did not care about his public appearance and he was not good at making decisions. One of the most illogical decisions Johnson made as president was to start a new reconstruction plan, before his death Lincoln already had a plan set out. Yet Johnson blatantly ignored the original reconstruction plan and that was when he began to experience abhorrence from both the Northerners and the Southerners which led to his impeachment. His impeachment, in May 1868, was because of his violation of the Tenure of office Act but it was mainly about the nation’s loathing for the president.
Reconstruction was the time period following the Civil War, which lasted from 1865 to 1877, in which the United States began to rebuild. The term can also refer to the process the federal government used to readmit the defeated Confederate states to the Union. While all aspects of Reconstruction were not successful, the main goal of the time period was carried out, making Reconstruction over all successful. During this time, the Confederate states were readmitted to the Union, the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth amendments were ratified, and African Americans were freed from slavery and able to start new lives.
The American Civil War was fought during the time period of 1861 to 1865 over the main dispute of slavery which lead to eleven slave states in the South seceding from the Union and forming the Confederate States of America. In order for the South to be known as a nation, they needed to gain recognition from England. The Union disassembled the possibility of the South becoming their own nation by winning the war against the Confederates.Only five days after the war, President Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. Suddenly, the bitterness towards the South from the North increased. Soon after, Andrew Johnson, who was a former slaveholder and Lincoln’s vice president who held similar ideals to Lincoln yet hated wealthy southerners became president. The Angry Radical Republicans disliked Johnson’s ideas a lot more than Lincoln’s ideas and felt that both presidents failed to confront the needs of ex-slaves. Although Johnson’s plan was rational, President Lincoln and the Radical
is that failure to incorporate economic justice for Blacks in both movements led to the failure of the First and Second Reconstruction.