However, in practice, their students use "top-down" process to guess theme and then adopt "bottom-up" process to check their understanding. Therefore, English teachers should use both processes in listening activities to help their students can practice both of them: "bottom-up" and "top-down". Furthermore, the combination of "bottom-up" processing and "top-down" processing is also called "interactive" processing (Peterson, 2001). In the classrooms, all pre-listening activities are one of good methods to help students integrate "bottom-up" processing and "top-down" processing when listening. For example, before listening, teachers should provide a lesson on the specific topic to bring students' level of content schema which help students can better comprehend the target text.
This paper is to identify the variety of sociological, political, and psychological issues that impact a child 's mastery of the reading process, and how instructors can effectively contribute to the reading success of diverse students in their classroom. . Reading is such a complex combination of skills that may affect an individual 's ability to read in several ways. A study reveals that often students bring to the reading process their own set of experiences and knowledge that affect their behavior. Besides, a lots of them are faced oftentimes with other problems such sociological, political, and psychological issues that can impact their mastery of the reading process.
Teachers also need to be aware that there has to be progress, and that certain students learn differently. When using emerging literacy into my model I need to find out what the student’s background knowledge is on reading, print, and what they want to read about. This helps them stay engaged and constantly gives them opportunity to grow and challenge themselves at their appropriate literacy level. Both reading readiness, and emergent literacy go hand in hand and provide a wide array of scaffolding within the scaffolding and building of the interactive reading model.
A. Behaviorism, constructivism and cognitivism are relatively common theories used in the classroom as ways to approach student learning. Behaviorism focuses on observable behavior, such as students answering questions correctly, or being able to follow directions to complete a task as instructed. Characteristics of a classroom that uses behaviorism might be memorization of facts, writing vocabulary words, or a token reward system to inspire the desired behavior and decrease undesired behaviors. Constructivism, as indicated by the root word “construct,” focuses on the construction of new ideas, or expanding on what is already known. Students in a classroom using constructivism as a means for learning might seem more actively engaged in the learning process; they often learn something new through applying what they already know about the content area, and exploring new matter to further their understanding.
d. Giving an example sentence or model. Teacher gives sentences examples remind students about how to use vocabulary in that sentence in the proper context. Teachers must be take advantage of a variety of teaching techniques and vocabulary can make the students begin to understand a word. So it will be achieved the goal of the learning process effective and efficient. In this study, a teacher using cooperative learning model and the techniques used are techniques two stay and two stray (TS-TS), think pair share (TPS), etc.
Student’s learning is scaffolded through three elements declarative, procedural and conditional knowledge. Students are shown strategies such as predicting, by learning about the strategy, the steps to implement it and using it across multiple contexts. This approach is beneficial to struggling students as the responsibility shifts from teacher to student. In addition to scaffolding, the Core outlines a variety of methods which reinforce good comprehension strategies, such as using prediction worksheets, CROWD prompting, cooperative learning and read aloud methods. Cooperative learning is a strategy I would implement in my own classroom.
They feel that students should select material that has meaning to them and that they will enjoy. Teachers who use the top down model encourage their students to engage in activities where they are able to speak, write and read to develop the skills they need in order to read. This method implies that a teacher believes the students will be able to read the words on the page by using context clues to help figure out words he or she may not be familiar with.
Learning styles come in many shapes and sizes. But what is a learning style? A learning style is the way a student approach learning specific to themselves. Some students learn best by visual or reading and writing, some learn best by listening to a professor or video, some by kinesthetic activity where they can see touch or feel, and so forth. There are various resources a teacher can provide to students to help them learn their way.
In this step, the students are encouraged to create questions and are asked to write down the ones that interest them the most. L. The final step is step L recalling what I did learn as a result of reading. In this step, the students write or discuss what they have learned with specific attention to their original questions. I will use this strategy to help me gain a sense of students’ prior knowledge of the classic literature The Secret Garden. A complete KWL chart can help students reflect and evaluate their learning experience as well as serve as a useful assessment tool for teachers.
Another connection is the idea that students can use background knowledge and combine it with what they are learning to gain new knowledge and understanding. The relation that critical literacy and content literacy have to the constructivist method is another theoretical connection. In the constructivist method, the roles of students and teachers change compared to their roles in the traditional method of learning. In the traditional model, the teacher is the expert who gives the students all the ... ... middle of paper ... ...nformation. Critical literacy and content area literacy theoretical connections revolve around the ideas that students must learn to not only comprehend text but also be able to analyze and evaluate it.